4 Periodicity

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  • Created by: Naana
  • Created on: 25-02-15 12:09
What do elements in the same group share?
They have the same number of electrons in the outer shell. Have similar chemical properties
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What happens to the reactivity of elements in the s block as we go down a group?
Metals get more reactive
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What happens to the reactivity of elements in the p block as we go down a group?
Non metals get less reactive
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What trends occur as we go across a period?
Trends in physical properties and chemical behavior
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What are the trends in melting and boiling temperatures of the elements in period 3?
As you go across period 3 the boiling and melting temperatures decrease. These trends are due to their structures. Giant structures on left (ionic lattice, macromolecular, giant metallic), and on the right molecular or atomic structures
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Why does the melting and boiling points of metals increase from sodium to aluminum?
As we go from left to right the charge on the ions increase and so electrons there are more electrons in the outer shell that are released into the sea of delocalised electrons. As a result there is a stronger electrostatic force
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What are the trends in atomic radius as you move across a period?
Atomic radii decreases as you move across period as the number of shells of shells and shielding remains the same but the nuclear charge increases (due to increased number of protons). The increased charge pulls the electrons closer to the nucleus
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What are the trends of first ionisation energy as you move across period?
First ionisation energy increases across a period as the nuclear charge is increasing but the electrons are added to the same shell. The increased nuclear charge means that it becomes increasingly difficult to remove an electron
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Why is there a decrease in ionisation energy from one period to the next?
As we start a new period, a new shell is added which increases the atomic radius. As a result the outer electron is further from the nucleus and so is less strongly attracted and easier to remove
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Why is the first ionisation energy of magnesium (group 2) higher than aluminum (group 3)?
Mg has its outer electron in the 3s sub shell whereas Al has its outer electron in the 3p sub shell. The electron in the p sub shell is in a higher E orbital; therefore it takes less to remove the electron from 3p sub shell
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Why is the first ionsiation energy of sulfur (3p4) lower than phosphorous (3p3)?
Phosphorous has maximum unpairing and so no paired electrons in the same p orbital, whereas sulfur has two paired electrons in the same p orbital and as electrons repel each other it is easier to remove the electron hence lower ionisation energy
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to the reactivity of elements in the s block as we go down a group?

Back

Metals get more reactive

Card 3

Front

What happens to the reactivity of elements in the p block as we go down a group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What trends occur as we go across a period?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the trends in melting and boiling temperatures of the elements in period 3?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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