4. Theories of Human Development

  • Created by: ellietuke
  • Created on: 16-05-17 08:38
Social Learning Theory
Bandura. Observational learning. Investigate if social behaviours can be acquired by observation and imitation.
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SLT: Predictions
Children observing an angry adult role model will replicate similar behaviour. More likely to copy a role model of the same sex. Male children tend to be more aggressive.
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SLT: Method
36 boys and 36 girls, aged 3-6. 1- Aggressive model (attacked Bobo doll). 2- Non-aggressive model. 3- Control group. Shown model, put under stress, allowed to play in a room with different toys. Observed every 5 mins for 20 mins.
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SLT: Findings
Aggressive model displayed aggressive behaviour themselves. Boys were nearly 3 times more likely to replicate physical violence. Non-aggressive showed little imitative aggressive behaviour. Didn't fully prove the prediction, no big difference.
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SLT: Conclusion
Increased understanding of many areas of human behaviour, including criminal. Findings were inconclusive, most predictions were fully proved. Saw the Bobo doll as a game. Ecological validity, the model was a stranger to the child.
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SLT: Reinforcement
Positive and negative. Makes imitation more likely. Vicarious reinforcement. Indirect, observing another performing an action and repeating.
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Skinner. Classical conditioning was far too simplistic, looked at the causes of an action and the consequences.
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Behavioural: Method
Placed rats in a box which is rigged with food pellets. Rats move around and accidently press lever. Repeatedly press the leaver in order to obtain more food. Food stops, it is abandoned (extinction).
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Behavioural: Reinforcement
Anything that strengthens a response and the likelihood of repeating. Positive- behaviour produces a satisfying or pleasant response. Negative- removing something unpleasant to restore an organism to a 'pre-aversive' state.
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Behavioural: Punishment
Application of an unpleasant consequence following behaviour. Results in behaviour being less likely to be occur again.
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Behavioural: Scheduled reinforcement
Continuous- a pleasant response every time the behaviour is performed, most effective in establishing a particular behaviour. Partial- supplying food on every 3rd press, most effective in maintaining and avoiding extinction.
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Behavioural: Conclusion
Used to explain behaviour from learning to addiction. Practical applications in classrooms, prisons and psychiatric hospitals. Fails to take into account the role of inherited and cognitive factors. Animals in research is an issue.
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Rogers. Agreed with the main assumptions of Maslow. Believed humans have a motive to self-actualise. Main goal is to achieve self-actualisation.
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Humanistic: Fully functioning people
Believed only certain people could reach self-actualisation. 1- Open to experiences. 2- Existential living. 3- Trust feelings. 4- Creativity. 5- Fulfilled life.
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Humanistic: Self-Worth
Humans behave in ways which are consistent with self-image, which reflects 'ideal self'. Feeling of self-worth are developed in childhood. High self-worth: confidence and positive feelings about themselves. Low self-worth: avoid challenges, defensive
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Humanistic: Unconditional positive regard
Feel valued and be treated with affection by others. Family members accept other and loves the person for what their for. Not withdrawn if they make a mistake.
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Humanistic: Congruence
A person's ideal self is consistent with what actually happens in life. Their isn't a difference between their ideal self and actual experience.
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Humanistic: Person-Centered Therapy
Empathetic approach that empowers and motivates the client. Based on Rodger's belief that every human strives for high self-worth and congruence. Identifies each person's capacity for personal growth. Provides unconditional positive regard.
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Piaget. Learning is an on-going process where the individual builds their knowledge. Intelligence is not fixed at birth. Develops through experience. Proposed stages of development, the construction of one logical structure after another.
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Constructivist: Stages of Development (1)
1- Sensorimotor (0-2yrs), object permanence, form mental representations. 2- Preoperational (2-7yrs), understand symbolically, develop memory and imagination.
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Constructivist: Stages of Development (2)
3- Concrete Operational (7-11yrs), start operational thoughts, work things out internally. 4- Formal Operational (11+yrs), develop ability to grasp skills such as logical thought, continued intellectual development through accumulation of knowledge.
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Constructivist: Tests (1)
1- Object Permanence, toy is hidden under a blanket, observe whether the child searches for the toy. Search at 8 months. 2- Mountains test, see whether children are egocentric, shown different sets of mountains, doll is placed asked their view.
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Constructivist: Tests (2)
3- Conservation test, ...liquid, water poured into different containers, aged 7 understand it is the same quantity even though shape changes. ...number, counters into a pattern, same number of counters when spread out, aged 7 answered correctly.
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Constructivist: Schemas
Basic building blocks of intelligence, use information from past to plan future actions. A way of organising knowledge relating to different aspects of the world. Piaget- babies have a small number of innate schemas (reflexes).
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Cattell. Personality is inherited. Necessary to look at a much larger number of traits in order to get a complete picture of personality. Disagreed with Eyseneck's view that behaviour can be understood through 2 or 3 dimensions. Trait theory.
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Biological: Trait Theory
Analysed T-data (data from objective test) and Q-data (questionnaire) using a mathematical technique called factor analysis. 16 personality traits e.g. warmth and intelligence. 16PF, 160 Qs, at the end the scores make up an individual personality.
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Biological: Evaluation
Twin studies are used to see if personality is genetic, findings are conflicting and inconclusive. Monozygotic twins are more alike on the introvert-extrovert dimensions. 50 % of variations of scores on personality are due to inherited traits.
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Freud. Describes how personality develops through innate drives. Driving force behind behaviour. Conscious, precocious and unconscious. Mental mechanisms to control adult behaviour.
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Psychodynamic: Id
Operates on the unconscious. Contains the libido. Works according to the 'pleasure principle'. Demands immediate gratification.
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Psychodynamic: Ego
Mediates between impulsive id and reality of external world. Delays gratifying until there is a more appropriate opportunity.
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Psychodynamic: Superego
Divided into conscious and ego-ideal. Conscience is internalisation of societal roles. Determines behaviours which are acceptable. Ego-ideal: what a person strives towards.
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Psychodynamic: Oral Stage (Birth-1yr)
Primary source of interaction occurs through mouth, sucking and biting. Entirely dependent on caregiver.
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Psychodynamic: Anal Stage (1-3yrs)
Focuses on controlling the bladder and bowel movements. Success is dependent on parents approach. Praise and reward are most successful.
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Psychodynamic: Phallic Stage (3-6yrs)
Begin to discover difference between males and females. Sexual energy is focused on the genitals. Males unconsciously wish to possess the mothers and get rid of the fathers. Oedipus complex. Castration anxiety.
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Psychodynamic: Latent Stage (6-12yrs)
Libido is suppressed through development of ego and superego. Become more interested in peer relationships. Develop communication skills and confidence.
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Psychodynamic: Genital Stage (12+yrs)
Strong sexual desire towards the opposite sex. Directs to sexual intercourse and adulthood. If other stages completed successful they will be well-balanced, warm and caring.
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Psychodynamic: Oedipus Complex
Young boys, body develops sexual desires towards their mother. Wants to possess and get rid of the father. Irrationally thinks that if he finds out he will take away what he loves most (penis). Resolved by imitating father.
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Psychodynamic: Electra Complex
Girls desire the father but realise they don't have a penis. Leads to the development of penis envy. Resolve this by substituting the wish for a baby. Blames the mother for her castrated state. Feelings are repressed, identifies and takes female role
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Language Development
Learned from the environment. Through operant conditioning, reinforcement and shaping. Parents/other adults reinforce sounds that resemble human speech. Other sounds are ignored. Infants learn what sounds are appropriate. Imitate speech.
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SLT: Predictions


Children observing an angry adult role model will replicate similar behaviour. More likely to copy a role model of the same sex. Male children tend to be more aggressive.

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SLT: Method


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SLT: Findings


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SLT: Conclusion


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