Health and Social


Humanist Perspective


  • All humans have the same needs. Humans have self motivation to progress-internal drive/learn/be curious/discover for self
  • Needs identified in a heirachy-deficit needs must be met beforehigher order needs (intellectual/cognitive) are addressed.
  • The environment or carers ca cause barriers that stop an individual reaching their full potential.


  • physical/physiologcal needs
  • safety needs
  • sense of belonging and love
  • self-esteem needs
  • self actualisation
1 of 7

Biological Perspective


  • Born with personality
  • All personalities can be measured according to two or three basic biologically determined traits. Individuals can be placed at a point on a continuum between extreames: Extroversion-Introversion and Stablity/ Instability (neauroticism) and Tough minded/ Tender minded
  • The traits can be measured with personality tests. This means we can predict future behaviours of people. For example Eysenck argued that criminal behaviour can be linked to traits and s particually associated with extroversion and instability.
2 of 7

Psychodynamic Perspective

Erikson (psycho social)

  • Personality develops throughout life-focus on social and personality development
  • An individual must take on and resolve stages/crises/dilemmas which are linked to each stage
  • Childhood very influential on adult emotions. Ability to cope with change in later life linked to ways in which crises/dilemmas are met earlier in life (adaptive/ maladaptive response). Crisis of identity, while at the time painful, are necessary to forge a stronger, more commanding self.
3 of 7

Psychodynamic Perspective

Erikson Stages:

  • age 0-1     Trust v Mistrust , Hope v Insecurity
  • age 1-2    Autonomy v Shame/Doubt
  • age 3-5   Initiative v Guilt
  • age 6-Puberty   Industry v Inferiority
  • adolescence-18     Identity v Role confusion
  • 20's      Intimacy v Isolation
  • 20s-50s     Generativity v Stagnation
  • 50+   Integrity v Despair/ wisdom/ satisfaction/ acceptance of death v regret/fear of death
4 of 7

Behavioural Perspective


  • Importance of environment- all behaviour is learnt
  • Change n behaviour is possible, if environment changes
  • Operant conditioning
  • Positive and negative reinforcement and punishment
  • Schedules of reinforcement behaviour which is reinforced will be repeated.
5 of 7

Social Learning Theory Perspective


  • Behaviour is learnt through observation and imitation
  • Role models- emphasis on influence of role models. The role models are more effective if: they are the same gender, warm and loving, more powerful, liked and respected.
  • Children/Adults will change their behaviour to "fit in" with the group/enviroment and be accepted

Application of theory to setting

  • Children: Care workers are role models to the children
  • Adolescents: More likely to copy peers/friends/celebrities than parents so they fit in
  • Older people in residential homes: Likely to copy behaviour of other residents
6 of 7

Constructivist Perspective


Theories of cognitive development, thinking, understanding changes with age.

Ages and Stages

  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Pre-operatonal stage
  • Concrete operational
  • Formal operational

Process of learning- accomodation, assimilation and equilibration

7 of 7


No comments have yet been made

Similar Health & Social Care resources:

See all Health & Social Care resources »See all Understanding human behaviour and development resources »