2.1.1 BASIC CONCEPTS

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What is a skeletal formula?
simplest organic formula shown shown by removing hydrogen
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What is a homologous group?
families of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differentiating by CH2
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What is a structural formula?
the minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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What is a functional group?
an atom/ group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, causes them to have similar chemical properties
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What is a hydrocarbon?
compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon only
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What is a displayed formula?
shows all the bonds present in a molecule
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Define saturated
contain single carbon bonds only
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Define unsaturated
contains a double = carbon bond
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What are structural isomers?
compounds with the same molecular formula but with a different structural formulae
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what are stereoisomers?
compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement in space
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What is E/Z isomerism?
type of stereoisomerism shown in some alkenes
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How is E/Z isomerism created?
restricted rotation about the double carbon bond, the two groups attached to each C are in fixed positions // if these groups are different
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What is Cis/Trans isomerism?
special type of E/Z isomerism in with the two substituent groups are the same
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What is Z isomerism?
When same groups are either side of the C=C bond (ze same side)
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What is E isomerism?
either side of the C=C bond
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What is cis isomerism?
(ciz) type of Z isomerism but two groups are the same
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What is trans isomerism?
E isomerism with same atoms either side of C=C
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What types of covalent bond fission are there?
homolytic (free radicals) // heterolytic (cation and anion formed)
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What is the mechanism for homolytic fission?
initiation - UV photodissociation/ covalent bond broken// propagation - radicals are used and remade/ each radical v reactive/ new radical reacts with covalently bonded molecules// termination - free radicals used up
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What are the limitations of homolytic fission?
free radical substitution is not a good way of making halogenoalkanes as less product is made
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What is a free radical?
reactive species which possesses an unpaired electron
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What is an electrophile?
electron pair donor
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When is an electrophile used?
during heterolytic fission
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What is a curly arrow?
illustration of the movement of an electron pair
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How do you calculate percentage atom economy?
molecular mass of desired products / sum of molecular masses of all products
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Describe atom economy in the organic chemistry industry
addition reactions have 100% as only 1 product // substitution reactions are less efficient
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What is the problem with low atom economies?
gives poor sustainability because lots of chemicals are lost as waste
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How and why should high economy processes be developed?
to reduce waste / find uses for side products / develop alternative processes
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How is it possible to have a high percentage yield but a low atom economy?
reaction that produces a good yield of the desired product but also has lost of waste products
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Card 2

Front

What is a homologous group?

Back

families of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differentiating by CH2

Card 3

Front

What is a structural formula?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What is a functional group?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is a hydrocarbon?

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