6.2.1

Why do amines act as bases?
The lone pair on the nitrogen atom can accept a proton.
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How do amines act as bases?
A dative covalent bond is formed between the lone pair on the ntrogen atom and the proton.
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How do amines react with dilute acids?
Amines neutralise acids to form salts; it is an addition reaction.
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How do you prepare aliphatic amines?
Substitution of haloalkanes with excess ethanolic ammonia and amines; the lone pair in the ammonia atom reacts with a haloalkane to form an ammonium salt, aqueous alkali is added to form an amine.
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What are the essential conditions for this reaction?
Ethanol is used as a solvent, prevents any substitution of the haloalkane by water to produce alcohols; excess ammonia is used, reduces further substitution.
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How do you form secondary or tertiary amines?
The second lone pair on the nitrogen atom can react further with a haloalkane to form an ammonium salt; this salt is then reacted with NaOH to form a secondary amine; tertiary amines are further substituted secondary amines.
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How do you prepare aromatic amines?
Reduction of nitroarenes (eg. nitrobenzene) using tin and concentrated HCl; nitroarene heated under reflux with Sn and Hal to form the ammonium salt, and then reacted with excess NaOH to produce the aromatic amine.
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Card 2

Front

How do amines act as bases?

Back

A dative covalent bond is formed between the lone pair on the ntrogen atom and the proton.

Card 3

Front

How do amines react with dilute acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you prepare aliphatic amines?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the essential conditions for this reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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