Why should I be governed?
- Is government necessary?
- Do we have an obligation to obey the law?
- A right to dissent?
What would life be like without a government? Would it be heaven? Would it be hell?
State of Nature = idea of life without government without a state or laws. To imagine a state of nature we imagine away any government or law and see what we are left with.
- Life in a state of nature would be a war against all. He believes any government is better than none at all because a state of nature is so terrible. Was born in a civil war therefore sees and believes humans are capable of awful things.
- We are all vulnerable to crimes without a state however, no laws means no limits on what we can do to survive.
- Hobbes assumes the state of nature would be a world with scarce resources, resulting in fights throughout competition for food.
- Bonobo chimps live happily as a result of them being comfortable with food resources, no food competition results in no struggle for survival.
- His solution is to have a Leviathan. This is a rational response of all self-interested individuals.
- Everyone will see the need to have a Leviathan unless they’re mad.
- The leaders represent the collective will of the people but this does not mean that us has to rule in a way for everyone and rule how the people want.
- Sees the state as a protection racket against bad things, we pay taxes to be looked after. Use the CRAY twins example = in the past, you paid them money and they would protect you, even if it was from themselves and other gangsters.
- The least the state should do is protect life, property and defend from external invasion.
- Self-preservation is our most fundamental desire; no one can tell us how or how not we may try to stay alive.
HOBBES ON THE CAUSES OF WAR
- We desire power – Hobbes means to obtain what we want or the means to possess what you want in the future. There are many things that give us power including how people see us, e.g. is people are afraid of us we may get what we want.
- Hobbes believes our desires are never ending, once we have fulfilled one desire there will be another. We are not just satisfying our desires now we are also trying to make sure we can satisfy in the future.
- In a state of nature we are roughly equal, no one is so strong that they can dominate…