How do you understand violence?
How is violence portrayed in the media?
Nero's guests, Deepa Bhatia
- Mr Sainath (reporter) investigates farmer suicides in India.
- Nero, Emperer in Rome used slaves to illuminate his party.
- Sainath compares Nero's treatment as simular to the way Indias ruling class uses the working class.
- 'Business friendly' ventures that screw over farmers.
- Took Finance minister 2 hours to console Dala street millionares when Sensex plunged. But 10 yrs for PM to visit the families of farmers suicides.
- Journalist points to Nero's guests, who allow this to happen (compare general population).
- What is violence? What counts as violence?
- Is violence natural and inevitable?
- Is violence ever justified?
- Is violence an instrument of politics?
- How does IR theory approach violence?
- What is structural and cultural violence?
- Do only states exercise the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical violence?
- Is a strict monopoly of violence necessary?
War on the decline?
- Human security report: 50 was per year 1990's, rising since 9/11.
- US highest rates of imprisonment
- Drone attacks (e.g. in Yemen, US vs al Qiada, killing families)
- Boko Haram (Sexual slavery women/kids, April 14th kidnapped 200 schoolgirls in Chibok)
- Structural inequalities.
Why does IR not talk about violence?
- IR suppose to center around violence.
- Terms used are too narrow and biased, e.g. force, intervention, offensive strategies.
- In 'Man and the State of War'- Waltz, uses the term violence 11 times in whole book: 'To state Inter-state war'
- Term 'Violence' is used when states want to make it illegitiment.
- Mearsheimer in 'The tragedy of great power politics' uses language to make war illegitimate e.g. Italy 'focused it's agressive intentions' and Japan 'act[ed] agressively'
- Tony Blair played up the 'uncivilised other' to highlight why go to Iraq war.
State of Violence
- As the opposite of peace and order.
- 'Liberation of African and Asian people from European Empires...[caused] violence and disorder.'
Can violence be legitimised?
- Liberation struggles like African National Congress in SA.
- Franz Fanon said 'violence is a cleansing force...makes him fearless and restores his self respect'
- Gultung: Violence is a disparity between a persons actual/potential (someone does unessarily of a disease when it could of been preventable, but couldn't access the help).
- Direct violence-visable violence, physical and psycological abuse.
- Cultural violence- unseen violence, use to legitimise direct violence.
- Structural violence- When social/political/economical structures prefer people, maginalised don't reach it needs (e.g. colonialism and slavery).
- For example Flint Water crisis, water change lead to dangerous levels of lead in water, 40% residents below povety line, most African American. Wasn't being resolved.
- Isamaphobia US, muslim country ban Donald Trump (6 countries)
Amoore, Lousie, Goede
- Legitimising (Tony Blair 2010 Iraq inquiry, 'nihilists' -pointless violence al-queda, IRA 'certain framework you can understand'
- Iraq justified by the other and unknown, new forms of violence through terrorism justifies 'emergency ethics' -Walzer.
- Afpak border: Terrorist threat thats real, but unspecified.
- 2010 drones killed over 1000 milititants and 531 civilians.
- Max Weber…