-Topics Overview-


Ionic Bonding 

An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons and becomes charged.

If we 'take away' the electron we're left with just a positive charge. 

  • no gaps or spare electrons
  • structure same as noble gases
  • octet
  • positive and negative attract
  • metal and non-metals react
  • dot & cross model

Allotropes of Carbon

Allotropes are forms of an element that exists in the same state (solid, liquid, gas) but have different properties because their atoms are arranged differently. 


Diamond: Jewellery, Tools

Graphite: Pencils, Electrodes, Lubricants

Fullerene: Drugs

Nanotubes: Industrial catalysts, Tennis rackets, Semiconductors


Diamond: strong, slippery, strong covalent bond.

Graphite: black, insoluble in water, weak bond, opaque, high melting point, conduct electricity.

Nanotubes: conduct electricity, very strong, semiconductors, light, large surface area.



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