Stolypin and his reforms
An outbreak of rural violence following the disasterous harvest of 1901 led to the establishment of a commission of argiculture in 1902, on which the most influential member was Stolypin, the governor of Saratov province and himself a landowner. He had a reputation of the only governor able to keep firm control and was the first governor to use police methods to quell disturbances. His ruthlessness got him noticed by Nicholas II and he was appointed minister for internal affairs and in July 1905, Stolypin replaced Goremykin as Prime Minister.
The new court system
- The accused were not allowed a defence council
- Over 3,000 were convicted and executed by this court system between 1906-1909.
- The hangman's noose gained nickname 'Stolypin's necktie'.
- Over 60,000 were executed, imprisoned or exiled under Stolypin.
STOLYPIN BELIEVED THE FUTURE OF RUSSIA DEPENDED ON BUILDING A PROSPEROUS PEASANTRY. Referred to his programme as a 'wager on the strong and sober'
Despite widespread rural poverty, a significant number of peasants had managed to buy up land and found ways of farming more efficiently. They became known as the 'rural upper class' (the Kulaks). Stolypin called them 'Shurdy and strong'; he believed the future of Russia depended on encouraging people like this to flourish. This prosperity would mean their hostility to further change and therefore their support for the Tsar.
Stolypin's Agrarian Reforms
Why was reform needed?
- Disastrous 1901 harvest caused violence. Commission of Argiculture was set up in 1902 and Stolypin was made leader.
- Increase exports and help Russia balance the budget.
- There wasn't enough land to go around the growing population. They had to decrease the number of peasants trying to make their living from the land so those left could make it more profitable.
- Still using old fashioned methods of farming
- To keep the peasantry quiet and prevent revolution.
- Wanted to…