- POSTMODERNITY AND RELIGION- some sociologyists rejected the secularisation thesis that religion m ust be inevitably declining in modern society... some argue for change.
- BELIEVING WITHOUT BELONGING- DAVIE= you can believe in God/ supernatural but don't have to attend church. many are doing this as their lives are too hectic to physically go to church . C/A- BRUCE- if you believed in religion that strongly you would make time to go to church.Religion is becoming more privatised.
- VACRIOUS RELIGION- DAVIE= where a small number of clergy practice religion on behalf of those in society who don't attend church. This means that they experience religion second hand.
- CRITICISMS- VOAS AND CROCKET- against believing without belonging. many surveys show that belief and attendance is declining. C/A belief numbers are still above attendance numbers. BRUCE says that if people aren't willing in invest time in to church/ religion shows that they have no/ very weak beliefs.
- SPIRITUAL SHOPPING- HERVIEU- LEGER continues the trend of choice and believing without belonging. There has been a decline in institutionalisation in Europe. This is down to cultural amnesia. This is where the new generations aren't taught about religion and therefore don't know/ are oblivious to any religion. This is partly because schools and the media aren't what they used to be like when under church power. This has led to people believing they have a choice over which religions they choose or dont choose to follow. They then 'shop' around for aspects of certain religions they like and reject the aspects they don't like. This can also called Sheilaism (very individualistic). Religion no longer acts as a communal tower of strength, power and identity but we have now become pilgrims and converts.…