Purposes of texts

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Different purposes of a text:

Writing to instruct: e.g recipes,instruction manuals,

-Main function is to show the reader how to do something

-Usually include chronological, numbered sections

Lexis and semantics:

  • Denotative lexis- factual lexis
  • Factual language
  • Statistical data
  • Field specifc lexis or semantic field, e.g beat, whisk, fold
  • Jargon- specialist language
  • Concrete nouns-refer to things that physically exist
  • Repetition
  • Syndetic/asyndetic listing

Grammar and syntax:

  • Imperative/disguised directives- commands/orders- very common
  • Modal verbs- should, could, must
  • Conditional clauses- if, when
  • Simple sentences
  • Complex sentences with subordinate clauses giving additional information/offering solutions etc
  • Adverbial phrases- location, time, manner, direction, e.g for 5 minutes, carefully
  • Prepositions/prepositional phrases- up, under, on the table
  • Fronted conjunctions- so, but
  • Fronted adverbials
  • Stative verbs- express a state rather than an action. They usually relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses.
  • May use second person forms, e.g you do this to address the reader directly


  • Organisational strategies for the material, e.g discourse markers such as first, next, lastly
  • Parenthesis- extra information between brackets and dashes
  • Anaphoric reference

Graphology: clear and structured style

  • Bullet points
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Images
  • Columns

Writing to persuade: e.g, speeches, advertising, reviews

-they try to influence the readers opinions or persuade them to do something

Lexis and semantics:

  • Emotive lexis that reveals


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