P1 Energy transfer by heating

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Infrared radiation

  • Infrared radiation is energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.
  • All objects emit infrared radiation.
  • The hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it emits in a given time.

Surfaces and radiation

  • Dark, matt surfaces emit infrared radiation more quickly than light, shiny surfaces.
  • Dark, matt surfaces absorb infrared radiation more quickly than light, shiny surfaces.
  • Light, shiny surfaces reflect more infrared radiation than dark, matt surfaces.

States of matter

  • Flow, shape, volume and density are the properties used to describe each state of matter.
  • The particles in a solid are held next to each other, vibrating in their fixed positions.
  • The particles in a liquid move about at random and are in contact with each other.
  • The particles in a gas move about randomly and are much farther apart than particles in a solid or liquid.


  • Metals are the best conductors.
  • Metals such as


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