What are electrons shells made up of?
-Sub-shells and orbitals
What is another name for en electron shell?
What are the numbers given to each energy level called?
-Principal Quantum number
Shells further from the nucleus have a greater energy level than shells ****** to the nucleus
Name the first 4 sub-shells
How many electrons can be held in each orbital?
By how many orbitals do the sub-shells s,p,d,f increase by consecutively?
How many orbitals in the s subshell?
What is an orbital?
-An area of space that an electron moves in
What is the similarity between orbitals in the same sub-shell?
What is the term given to electrons having to spin in opposite directions within an orbital?
What is the shape of s orbitals?
What shape are p orbitals?
At what angles are the 3 p orbitals arranged with eachother?
-At right angles (90°)
Name the three axes that p orbitals are arranged in
-x, y and z
What is the relationship between the 4s sub-shell and the 3d sub-shell? What does this cause?
-4s is at lower energy than the 3d sub-shell despite its principal quantum number being bigger
-4s sub-shell fills up first
What is the name given to the electronic configuration showing sub-shells?
What is the subshell notation for Helium?
What do the symbols represent in the sub-shell notation?
-1: Energy level/shell (principal quantum number)
-2: Number of electrons
Lithium is Group 1 after Helium; give the noble gas electron configuration of Lithium
Electronic Structure decides the C******* P********* of an element
Which groups contain s block elements? Which two anomalous elements are also in the s block but not in the groups listed?
-Groups 1 and 2
-Hydrogen and Helium
Which block are groups 5, 6 and 7?
What word is used to describe elements that don’t react i.e. noble gases?
Where are the d block elements found on the periodic table?
What do the d block elements tend to do in terms of electrons? What do they form?
-Loses and d electrons
What amazing analogy referring to transport can be used to describe how orbitals are filled?
-Strangers filling up seats on a bus. Everyone tends to sit in their own seat till they’re forced to share.
Define First Ionisation Energy
-Energy required to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions
What type of process is ionisation? Why?
-You must put energy in to ionise an atom or molecule
Write an equation for first ionisation energy of oxygen
-O(g) à O+(g) + e-