OCR GCE Chemistry - Electrons, Bonding and Structure

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What are electrons shells made up of?

-Sub-shells and orbitals

 

What is another name for en electron shell?

-Energy level

 

What are the numbers given to each energy level called?

-Principal Quantum number

 

Shells further from the nucleus have a greater energy level than shells ****** to the nucleus

-Closer

 

Name the first 4 sub-shells

-s,p,d,f

 

How many electrons can be held in each orbital?

-2

 

By how many orbitals do the sub-shells s,p,d,f increase by consecutively?

-2

 

How many orbitals in the s subshell?

-1

 

What is an orbital?

-An area of space that an electron moves in

 

What is the similarity between orbitals in the same sub-shell?

-Same energy

 

What is the term given to electrons having to spin in opposite directions within an orbital?

-Spin pairing

 

What is the shape of s orbitals?

-Sphere

 

What shape are p orbitals?

-Dumbbell shapes

 

At what angles are the 3 p orbitals arranged with eachother?

-At right angles (90°)

 

Name the three axes that p orbitals are arranged in

-x, y and z

 

What is the relationship between the 4s sub-shell and the 3d sub-shell? What does this cause?

-4s is at lower energy than the 3d sub-shell despite its principal quantum number being bigger

-4s sub-shell fills up first

 

What is the name given to the electronic configuration showing sub-shells?

-Sub-shell notation

 

What is the subshell notation for Helium?

-1s2

 

What do the symbols represent in the sub-shell notation?

-1: Energy level/shell (principal quantum number)

-2: Number of electrons

-s: Sub-shell

 

Lithium is Group 1 after Helium; give the noble gas electron configuration of Lithium

-[He]2s1

 

Electronic Structure decides the C******* P********* of an element

-Chemical Properties

 

Which groups contain s block elements? Which two anomalous elements are also in the s block but not in the groups listed?

-Groups 1 and 2

-Hydrogen and Helium

 

Which block are groups 5, 6 and 7?

-P block

 

What word is used to describe elements that don’t react i.e. noble gases?

-Inert

 

Where are the d block elements found on the periodic table?

-Transition metals

 

What do the d block elements tend to do in terms of electrons? What do they form?

-Loses and d electrons

-Positive ions

 

What amazing analogy referring to transport can be used to describe how orbitals are filled?

-Strangers filling up seats on a bus. Everyone tends to sit in their own seat till they’re forced to share.

 

Define First Ionisation Energy

-Energy required to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions

 

What type of process is ionisation? Why?

-Endothermic

-You must put energy in to ionise an atom or molecule

 

Write an equation for first ionisation energy of oxygen

-O(g) à O+(g) + e-

 

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