contain: pentose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogenous base
Nucleotides are linked by condensation reaction to produce phosphodiester bonds. The carbon 5 on one sugar covalent bonds with the OH on the carbon 3 of another. This creates a sugar-phosphate back bone. The bonds are broken by hydrolysis.
bases: pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine purines: adenine and guanine
made up of two strands of polynucleotides coiled in a double helix, with the strands running antiparallel to each other.
between the strands the bases bond by hydrogen bonding. Adenine and thymine always bond together with 2 hydrogen bond. Guanine and cytosine always bond together with 3 hydrogen bonds. This is complementary base pairing.
purification of DNA: macerate the tissue , add a strong detergent and then ethanol so that DNA precipitates out of solution. Can purify further by removing unwanted salts and then can concentrate.
bases: same except uracil instead of thymine (because less stable)
made up of one strand and is usually shorter than DNA
has three forms mRNA (messenger) tRNA (transfer) rRNA (ribsomal)
ATP + ADP
3 phosphate groups for ATP and 2 for ADP
ATP is hydrolysised to realease energy and form ADP and a phosphate ion
when fats and carbs get broken down the energy from it produces ATP by phosphorylation…