2.1.15 Biology- Nucleotides

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Nucleic acids in living organisms:

Nucleic acid comes in two forms: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). In living organisms these molecules hold the coded information to build that organism. Almost all the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is found in the nucleus, where it acts as an information store. RNA is found in 3 different forms. These three forms are needed to read and translate the information in order to produce various proteins required to make the living, functioning organisms.


Nucleotides are monomers of nucleic acid:

The monomer of all nucleic acids is called a nucleotide. Each single nucleotide is itself made by the joining of three subunits:

·         one phosphate group

·         one sugar molecule

·         one organic nitrogenous base

The three subunits are joined by the covalent bonds to form a single nucleotide molecule.

Nucleotides common features:

As nucleic acids code for the building of all living organisms, you might expect there to be a large number of different monomers available to produce such a code. In fact, just four different nucleotides make up the code carrying the instructions to make proteins in all living things.

·         The phosphate group in all nucleic acids is always the same.

·         The sugar molecule is a 5-carbon sugar, either Deoxyribose


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