Baroque Period-Music written between 1600-1750
Oratorio-Large scale music for orchestra, solo singers and chorus
Affection-The mood of the music-
Diatonic-Notes that are related to each other
Polyphonic-2 or more melodies performed at the same time
Melodic-refers to the melody line (shape)
Libretto-The words of the music
Aria-Solo Vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment
Recitative-Style of singing where it is 'told' using rhythm and natural speech
Chorus-Section for massed voices and orchestra
Imitative-Music that copies each line
Cadence-Can be either Plagal, Perfect, Imperfect or Interrupted.
Perfect Cadence-Dominant to Tonic Chords. Sounds finished.
Plagal Cadence-Sub-dominant to Tonic chords. Sounds finished. 'Amen' cadence.
Tonality-Is it Major or Minor?
Tonic-First degree of the scale
Subdominant-Fourth degree of the scale
Dominant-Fifth degree of the scale
Mozart's 40th Symphony in G minor Movt 1
Classical Period-Music written between 1750-1827
Symphony- A large scale composition consisting of four movements (trad. Classical form)
Homophonic- Music with a melody and an accompaniment or just chords.
Balanced Phrases-Musical phrases with even number of bars (4+4) (2+2)
Sonata Form-Style utilising exposition, development and recapitulation. 1st mvt of symphony.
Rondo-Fourth movement. ABACADA structure.
Minuet & Trio-3rd Movement of Symphony
Exposition-Where ideas are initially stated (2nd subject in dominant key).
Development-Ideas (1st and 2nd Subjects) exploited and altered using rhythm and tonality.
Recapitulation-Ideas are restated (2nd subject now in tonic key)
First subject-First idea in Sonata Form
Second Subject-Second idea in Sonata Form (Dominant key in Exposition and Tonic Key in Recapitulation
Chromatic-Melodies that move by semitones
Semitone-Half a tone, or the distance between a white key and an adjacent black key.
Tone-Whole tone or two semitones
Pathetique-Literally 'pathetic', refers to a melancholic mood
Chopin: Piano Prelude No. 15 in Db Major Op28 (The Raindrop)
Romanticism-Music written between 1827-1900
Virtuoso-Person in music who has mastered the skills and techniques of their art form.
Soft Pedal-Left Pedal. When pressed will soften the tone of the music.
Sustaining Pedal-Right pedal on piano. Sustains all the strings by removing the dampers from all strings and allowing them to vibrate freely.
Arpeggio-The notes of a triad played separately rather than all at the same time.
Cantabile-In the singing style', meaning that the melody is to be played legato.
Tempo Rubato-Literally means 'robbed' time - a technique where the player can pull back, or speed up, the tempo for expressive effect.
Dominant Pedal-A long held note using the fifth degree of the scale.
Acciaccatura-A 'crushed' note. Used for decoration.
Pivot note/chord-Notes and chords that are common in two different keys.
Leonard Bernstein’s Something’s Coming from West Side Story
Vaudeville-A form of entertainment, popular in the 1700s, in which popular songs were performed with alternative words.