Language and Gender Theories
Robin Lakoff - Womens use of language
- Hedging: phrases like "sort of", "kind of" and "it seems like" were more frequent in feminine speech
- Polite Forms: "Would you mind" , "I'd appreciate it if", "...If you don't mind"
- Tag Questions: "Your going to dinner, aren't you?"
- Empty Adjectives: divine, lovely, adorable, - are example of this
- Use Wh- imperative: "Why don't you go and play?"
- Speak less frequently
- Overuse Qualifiers: "I think that..."
- Use modal constructions: can, would, should and ought - "Should we turn on the turn down the volume?"
- Insifiers: Especially, So and Very. "I am SO glad you came"
Zimmerman and West: Dominance Theory (1975)
- The theory that in mixed-sex conversations men are more likely to interrupt women.
- Zimmer and West came to the conclusion that because men interrupt women more often, then they are dominating or attempting to do so
- Beattie questioned the research and analysis of Zimmerman and West asking why the interruptions necessarily showed dominance.]
- Beattie asked can they not arise from other sources? Citing that some interruptions may suggest involvement or a genuine interest in the subject matter.
Deborah Tannen (Status V Support) or (Difference Theory)
- Men grow up in a world where conversation is competitive, and thus seek…