Key Words: GEOLOGY UNIT 4.3


Natural resource - a useful and valuable natural material

Mineral resources - can be metallic and non-metallic or industrial minerals

Reserves - the amount of the resource that can be extracted at a profit using existing technology

Ore deposit - an accumulation of metal that may be economic to mine

Average crustal abundance - describes the amount of metal in average continental crust

Concentration factor - the amount by which the metal is concentrated to make an ore deposit

Concentration factor = Concentration of metal in ore (grade) / Average crustal abundance

Ore - the rock containing valuable metal(s) that is economic to mine

Ore mineral - a mineral containing valuable metal(s)

Gangue mineral - a low-value waste mineral

Grade - the amount of metal in the ore

Cut-off grade - the minimum grade that is economic to mine

Cut-off grade = Average crustal abundance x Minimum concentration to be economic

Hydrothermal fluid - a hot, aqueous fluid containing dissolved metals in solution

Mineral vein - formed when minerals precipitate in a fracture

Country rock - the older rock (often sedimentary) surrounding an igneous intrusion

Precipitation - occurs as solid minerals come out of solution

Cumulate layer - the layer of dense minerals formed by…


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