HOW DID HENRY VII ESTABLISH HIMSELF AS KING?
- Henry dated the beginning of his reign to the day before the Battle of Bosworth. This way, anyone that had fought for Richard at the Battle of Bosworth were deemed traitors and their lands were confiscated by the Acts of Attainder.
- Henry arranged for his coronation to be on the 30th October, before the first meeting of Parliament. This way, Henry could publically declare that he did not need Parliament to crown him as King.
- He married Elizabeth of York in January 1486, uniting the houses of Lancaster and York.
- Prince Arthur was born in September 1486.
- He received a life grant of customs duties.
- He imprisoned Richard III's nephew, the Earl of Warwick.
- He granted John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln with a seat on the King's Council. Lincoln was Richard III's nephew and chosen heir.
- Henry had the support of Sir William Stanley, one of the most influential nobles in the north-west of England at the time.
THREATS TO HIS RULE: 1485 - 1509
1486: Lovell and Stafford Rising
In June 1486, whilst Henry was on a royal progress to York, three men, Lord Lovell and the Stafford Brothers, planned to ambush the King. In York, Yorkist support remained strong. However, this ambush failed ad Henry heard of the planned attack and brought in a royal army. Despite this, the fact that it occurred within a year of his usurpation of the throne demonstrates the vulnerability of his position.
1486 - 1487: Lambert Simnel
Lambert Simnel pretended to be the Earl of Warwick, whom Henry had imprisoned in the Tower. This was significant for several reasons:
- It occurred within a year of Henry's usurpation of the throne.
- Simnel had support based in Ireland and Oxford and received 2000 mercenaries from Margaret of Burgundy.
- Simnel also rallied the support of the Earl of Lincoln.
- Henry did not hear about the plans against him until 1487, demonstrating the vulnerability of his position.
- He offered the rebels a pardon but they refused.
- They met Henry's army at the Battle of Stoke in June 1487.
- Although the rebels were defeated easily, the sheer fact that such a weak claimant to the throne managed to bring the King to battle and rally support across Europe demonstrates both the vulnerability of his position and the distaste felt by many towards his usurpation.
1489: The Yorkshire Rebellion
It has been suggested that Henry was avaricious and rapacious. This is highlighted by the Yorkshire rebellion of 1489, which was a tax rebellion. The locals were enraged over increasing taxes to raise money to support Brittany in its struggle against France.
1491 - 99: Perkin Warbeck
Perkin Warbeck pretended to be Richard, Duke of York, one of the 'Princes in the Tower', who's death had been assumed but never confirmed. This was a significant threat because:
- He attracted support across Europe. In 1492, he was recognised by the French courts. In 1493, he was welcomed into Burgundy. In…