Geography Battle for the Biosphere

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Battle for the Biosphere

The 5 main biomes are:

Tropical Rainforests. These are mainly located around the equator and between the tropics of cancer and capricorn. The temperatures are high, which increases the species biodiversity as more plants and animals will thrive in the conditions. They are not landlocked areas (near some large spaces of waters (oceans) because they have lots of rain. For high rainfall, enough water needs to be evaporating in the area so that the rain falls there. An example of a tropical rainforest is the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil. This is a case-study.

Desert. These are found very near to the tropics of cancer and capricorn; not near the equator. At the tropics, the air is hot and dry; it is absorbed by the Earth's surface. which makes the area extremely hot. As a result of the very high temperatures, drought increases and any rain or water dries up very quickly. Therefore, animals that live here are cold-blooded and have certain features, which help them to survive in the conditions. Some examples are camels and meerkats. Cacti are adapted to absorbing and holding water without losing it through evaporation when photosynthesizing. As food shortages are low, cactus even have spikes to prevent animals from eating them. An example of a desert is the Sahara Desert.

Coniferous forests. These are located at higher latitudes where the Sun's rays are weak. It is very cold so the trees have evolved to have needle-like leaves and waxy resin to reduce heat and moisture loss. Some examples are pine and fur trees. Some of these forests can be found in Russia.

Deciduous forests. These are located slightly below the corniferous forests but stil at high latitudes. The rainfall is high and the trees shed their leaves during autumn. An example is a oak tree. Some can be found in the UK. They are only found in areas that have changing seasons.

Tundra. This is the coldest biome where everything is frozen, including the soil. Therefore, there are very few trees and living things because the climate is too extreme. Due to the gound being frozen, only tough grass can grow. They are located on the curves of the Earth where not much light and heat is able to reach the area.

How do local and global factos affect the locations of biomes?

Global factors (precipitation and temperature):

Latitude (north and south) affects the temperature. At the poles, the sun rays are less concentrated so there is limited sunlght and heat. Therefore, animals and plants that can adapt to colder condtions will be found here. This is where tundra (and sometimes corniferous forests) are found.

Precipitation happens in low-pressure belts where air masses converge, forcing the air to rise. The 2 main areas of year-round rainfall occur at the equator and at mid latitude (e.g. in the UK).

Local factors (altitude, continentality and soil types):

Altitude is the distance (north-south direction) from the sea. Air is cold at the tips of the mountains…


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