Fundamental Ideas

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1.1 Atoms, elements and compounds

  • All substances are made up of atoms
  • Elements are made only of one type of atom.
  • Chemical symbols are used to represent atoms.
  • Compounds contain more than one element.

1.2 Atomic Structure

  • The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons.
  • Protons have a positive charge, electrons a negative charge and neutrons are not charged at all.
  • The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms.
  • Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table.
  • The mass number is the sum of the


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