eyewitness testimony- leading questions loftus and palmer studys

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method of research

  • involved 45 participants who were shown 7 clips of traffic accidents
  • asked to write an account of each accident and answer  some questions
  • wereasked aquestion about speed, the wording in the question was changed 5 times. the question was"about how fast were the cars going when they........each other?" the missing word was either "contacted, bumped, collided, hit or smashed". they were asked the question straight away


  • found that the wording of the question changes the estimation of the speed given by the participants
  • the word "smashed" caused participants to rate speed at 40.8mph
  • the word "contacted caused participants to rate speed at 31.8pmh
  • this shows that leading questions can alter the…


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