Explanations for smoking;
Biological - nicotine affects the productions of dopamine and acetylcholine, leading to reinforcement. Genetic variations indicate that some are more vulnerable to addiction.
Cognitive - smokers possess irrational thoughts, such as dysfunctional ideas being self-fufilling, creating belief that they cannot quit, leading to a vicious cycle of continually surrending to cravings.
Behavioural approach - smoking occurs via observation and imitation of role models, due to vicarious reinforcements. Maintenance is due to posiive reinforcements of nictoine inhalation. As nicotine is removed from the body, frequent reinforcements via smoking are required.
- Pergadia et al (2006) found a heredibility factor in the experience of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, suggesting a genetic link and…