- Created by: ErinSunderland16
- Created on: 21-02-19 20:18
Adaptations, interdependence and competition:
- An ecosystem is the interaction between the community of living organisms and their environment.
- A community is two or more populations of organisms.
- A population is all the organisms of the same or closely-related species in an ecosystem.
- Interdependence means that all the organisms in an ecosystem are dependent upon each other.
Abiotic and biotic factors:
- The abundance and distribution of organisms in an ecosystem are affected by biotic and abiotic factors.
- Abiotic factors are non-living and include light intensity, temperature, moisture levels, soil pH and mineral content, wind intensity, direction, carbon dioxide levels and oxygen levels.
- Biotic factors are living and include availability of food, the arrival of new preadtors and pathogens and being out-competed by other species.
Competition in plants and animals:
- Competition can be between individuals of the same species which is called intraspecific or between different species which is called interspecific.
- Plants compete for light, water and minerals from the soil and for space.
- Animals compete for food, mates and territory.
- Individuals within a species that cannot effectively compete are likely to die.
- Whole species that cannot effectively compete are likely to become extinct.
Adaptations in plants and animals:
- All adaptations make organisms better suited to their ecosystem and provide them with a better chance at survival and reproduction.
- Examples of structural adaptations in plants are spines and in animals are sharp teeth and claws.
- Examples of behavioural adaptations in plants are growing towards the light and courtship in animals.
- An example of physiological adaptations in animals and plants is the production of venom or poisons.
- An extremophile is an organism that lives in an extreme environment.
- An extreme environment is one in which most organisms would find it difficult or impossible to survive such as polar regions, deserts and the deep ocean bed.
- Deep sea volcanic vents are places on the ocean floor where the volcanic gases of underground magma chambers bubble through.
- The organisms that live in these places have highly specialised adaptations.
Organisation of an ecosystem:
Levels of organisation:
- 1. Feeding relationships show the levels of organisation in an ecosystem.
- 2. Feeding relationships can be shown in food chains, which add together to make food webs for a habitat.
- 3. At the base of almost every food chain is a producer, which is usually a plant or algae which photosynthesises.
- 4. All the animals above the producer are called consumers.
- 5. Decomposers are bacteria and fungi which breakdown dead organisms and help them rot.
Predators and Prey:
- In a healthy, balanced ecosystem the numbers of predators remain fairly constant.
- The numbers of predators and prey can be seen in repeating predator-prey cycles.
- When the number of prey increases so does the number of predators because there is more food.
- The number of prey reduces when there are more predators eating them.
- Finally the number of predators decreases because there is less prey.
The Carbon Cycle:
- Carbon is an important element that can exist in different…