Impact of the crisis
There was little evidence to suggest that Khr or Kennedy were taking irresponsible actions that could have led to a loss of control. It showed IN relations cannot be conducted through crisis management methods. It was also quickly accepted that it was insufficient to see the crisis as the epitome of crisis management and a model, therefore, of how many future crisises may be managed. The immediate response to this reality was the creation in 1963 of a so-called 'hot-line' connecting the kremlin and the white house. The frequency of the hot line's usage is unknown. Some historians have taken the view that its symbolic value has been greater than its practical application.
The crisis also led to a growing awareness of the need to create some control over the nuclear arms race by placing restrictions on nuclear tests. In october 1963 a partial test ban treaty 'treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water' came into force. It was Khr who first proposed nuclear test ban negotiations as early as 30 october 1962. The outcome of the negotiations had been described as a 'watershed, marking an important new era in arms control' but 'while it represented a genuine step toward reducing superpower tensions and building mutual confidence, it fell short of the comprehensive test ban that many had advocated' (Munton and Welch)
The treaty created no provisions for underground tests or for periodic review and inspection. This implicit sanctioning of the testing of the nuclear weapons underground encouraged weapon proliferation among the major nuclear weapons.…