- Newman, Theologian and Cardinal: Conscience is god given (not a result of social conditioning or anything) and eternal.
- the faculty of consience is formed by intelligence and guided by the Church
- There is an objectiveness about conscience.
- Conscience is not about personal desires and wills as it is informed by God, a law giver and judge. It is the voice of God.
- Newman puts greater weight on conscience compared to Church - famously says he'll drink to the Pope but only after conscience.
- Still thinks we need Church's teachings etc however as the Church protects this idea of moral law (God's law).
- We can also be mistaken or act in bad conscience so need Church to help guide us. Church can also be mistaken but more likely an individual will be.
- In general Augustine, Butler and Newman's approaches to conscience is much more intuitionist than rationalist like Aquinas who stresses reason as being important…