Climate change

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Climate change

Causes of climate change

Milankotvitch cycle


The milankotvitch cycle is a natural cycle where the axis and the shape of the orbit of the earth vary over time. This leads to a variation in the amount of radiation that is absorbed from the sun therefore affecting the surface temperature of earth causing climate change.

  • Every 100,000 years, the shape of orbit changes from epilletical to circular. This changes the distance between earth and the sun therefore causing fluctuating temperature levels.
  • Every 41,000 years, the axis tilts between 21.5 degrees and 24.5 degrees means that seasons become more extreme.

Solar output

Radiation emitted from the sun can vary from different places. Sunspots that occur in a 11 year cycle lower the radiation that is emitted.

Volcanic and cosmic collisions

Emissions from volcanic eruptions include huge volumes of greenhouse gases that are ejected into the atmosphere. These gases include carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere where it is condensed into sulphate droplets which is an aerosol known to reduce the surface temperature of the earth, causing fluctuating climate and more extreme weather events.

Global warming


The greenhouse effect is a natural process that has been enhanced due to human activities. The greenhouse effect involves an accumulation of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane and ozone in the atmosphere that trap natural radiation emitted from…


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