- Created by: themoderrnage
- Created on: 22-04-21 10:07
- Childhood is not part of a biological range from birth to the age of 18.
- The concept of childhood changes based upon different social locations:
- Cultural backgrounds.
- Social class.
Cultural Differences in Childhood
- International Labour Organisation has estimated that there were 168 million child workers globally in 2013, other estimates have suggested in excess of 200 million.
- Wyness (2012): estimated that around 300,000 child soldiers active in conflicts in Central and Eastern Africa.
- UNICEF (2014): one in ten girls experience sexual violence and 95,000 children are murdered each year.
- Differences in expectations of children's behaviour globally, with little differentiation between adults and children in Samoa according to Benedict (1955).
Historical Differences in Childhood
- Aries (1973): examined the development of modern childhood by examining the role of children throughout history.
- Little differentiation between children and adults until the industrial era; the rise of compulsory schooling and control over labour laws.
- Decrease in infant mortality as society evolved; children were often not expected to live into adulthood before this time.
- Shift towards a more child-centred society in the late 20th century as a number of children in family decreased and…