In AQA chemistry this is a topic in unit 1, hence it isn't difficult to understand however it will require some time to ensure it's all committed to memory!
Chemical bonds form between their outer electrons and there are three types of ‘strong’ chemical bonds
Metals have one, two or three electrons in their outer shells and hence the easiest way for them to bond is to lose their outer electrons.
Non-metals will gain electrons to complete their outer shell.
Positive and negative ions are formed. Charged particles, from the transfer of electrons, are called ions.
The ionic bonding is the result of electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. This attraction extends throughout the compound.
Ionic compounds exist in a structure known as a lattice and is where the negative and positive forces are in fact balanced!
Properties of ionically bonded compounds
- They are always solids at room temperature and have a ‘giant’ structure. This means they have high melting points. It’s because the the energy needs to break the lattice of ions.
- Ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in a solution because the ions are able to move, whilst they cannot in a solid.
- Ionic compounds are brittle and will shatter if there is a sharp blow because the sharp blow can cause a row of positive and positive ions together and hence, it will break apart!
Non-metals needs to receive electrons to fill their outer shell. A covalent bonds forms between a pair of electrons.
The atoms share electrons, the ones in their outer shells which causes them to have stable arrangements.
Basically, a covalent bond is a…