What do Sociologists mean by Deviance? (4 marks)
Deviance is behavior that breaks social norms. Sometimes this includes criminal behavior; however, deviance and crime don't always mean the same thing. Crime is different in that it means the breaking of the law. Deviance that isn't criminal is talking loudly in a library, whilst deviance that is criminal is murdering someone. Some crime isn't even deviant for example speeding. There is no set definition of what deviance is as it depends on who is witnessing the behavior and how they see it, a religious person wouldn't see going to a place of worship as deviant, but a non-religious person might.
What do Sociologists mean by Crime? (4 marks)
Crime is the breaking of the law. However, this behavior isn't always deviant, although it can be. Deviance is different to crime as it is behavior that breaks social norms. Criminal behavior that is also deviant includes stealing, but some crimes are not deviant for example speeding. Some deviance doesn't break the law for example a male office worker wearing a dress to work. Crime is socially constructed, in that the law differs from society to society, and who influences the writing of the law. For example, drinking alcohol is illegal in Islamic countries, but not in the UK. If the law is influenced by the wealthy it may be lenient towards the wealthy, and harsh towards poorer people.
What do Sociologists mean by Informal Social Control? (4 marks)
Informal Social Control is the way that people are made to conform to the wishes of an aspect or institution of society, without that institution having been specially set up with special buildings and specially trained staff to make people to conform. For example, the Family gets its members to conform by offering rewards like presents, or punishments like smacking as a by-product of many of its other functions. This is different to Formal social control where the institution is specially set up and its main function is to get people to conform, for example the police are specially trained to keep order and arrest people if they are not prepared to do as the law says.
Agents of formal control
Agents of informal control
Agents that enforce the rules of society, such as the police and the judiciary.
Includes most agents of secondary socialisation, such as peer groups and religious institutions. Parents are also a significant agent of informal control.
What do Sociologists mean by Formal Social Control? (4 marks)
Formal Social control is the way that people are made to conform to the wishes of society by an institution that is specially set up with special buildings and specially trained people to do just that as a main function. For example, prisons have been built by the government and staffed by prison officers to keep those that do not wish to conform to the law locked away from the rest of society. This deters others from not conforming,…