B2- Cells

  • Created by: emmak10
  • Created on: 05-04-17 18:38

Nucleus- Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell

Ribosomes-Protein synthesis happens here, making protein from amino acids

Mitochondria- Respiration takes place here. This releases energy for the cells to use.

Cell membrane- Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell

Cytoplasm-Jelly like substance where chemical processes take place, controlled by enzymes

Vacuole- Filled with cell sap (containing sugars/salts) to help keep the cell turgid- swollen with water

Chloroplasts- Contains chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

Cell wall-Rigid outer layer- strengthens and supports the cell

Animal Cells: They are about 10-30 micrometres (0.01-0.03 mm) in length and contain a nucleus, a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes and mitochondria.

Plant Cells: About 10-100 micrometres (0.01-0.1mm) in length and contain a cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, ribosomes, a large permanent vacuole and chloroplasts. Algae cells are very similar to plant cells. 

Yeast Cells: Usually about 3-4 micrometres (0.0003-0.004mm), yeast is a single celled organism and is a type of fungus used to make bread and beer. It has mitochondria, a nucleus, cell wall, cell membrane, vacuole, cytoplasm and ribosomes.

Bacteria Cells: A single celled organism, about 2-8 micrometres in length (0.002-0.008mm) without a nucleus but instead genetic material in the form of circular DNA. It also has a slime capsule (for protection), a flagella (for movement), a plasmid (small bits of circular DNA that contains some genes), a cell membrane, a cell wall and cytoplasm. Some are pathogens but many type are useful to humans e.g. decomposition, in yogurt and cheese and sewage treatment.

Specialised Cells: All cells are specialised to perform a specific job, meaning they have a specific structure. A sperm cell has lots of mitochondria to produce a lot of energy from respiration and a tail to help it swim. The root hair cells in plants have a large surface area to enable them to…


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