- Tundra (ecosystems which withstand the intense cold) being lost and other plants taking over.
- Positive ice albedo feedback mechanism.
- Permafrost thawing out.
- High in methane (60x more powerful than carbon dioxide).
- Tree line growing bigger – as permafrost melts, the trees can spread their roots out further.
- Disruption of the food chain.
- More spruce bark beetle
- Fires in the boreal forests in Arctic Russia losing 10 million hectares…