Also known as the ‘v’ effect (Verfremdungseffekt)alienation is a device used to separate the audience from the action. In order to keep the audience interested, Brecht aimed to keep them emotionally invested in the characters so they would be engaged to decipher his moral message. Brechtian/Epic theatre works to break the fourth wall so the audience remain active members of the theatrical experience.  

Different devices can be used to convey the ‘v’ effect 

-Narration: effective in breaking the fourth wall as it reminds the audience that they’re watching a story 

-Third Person Narration: a way to break action in a particularly tense scene to give insight


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