4. From war to Civil War in China, 1945-1946

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  • Created by: jxssrules
  • Created on: 14-05-18 10:51

18 August 1945: Japanese surrender came as a surprise; civil war inevitable

The breakdown of the Nationalist/Communist United Front

The (territorial) divisions of China at the end of WW2

Japanese forces: north, much of centre, Chinese coastline, most of large cities; waiting to surrender; Nationalists/GMD: large area of southern & western China from their capital of Chongqing; Communists/CCP: much of countryside in northern & northeastern China from Yan'an base; Soviet Union's Red Army: moved to Manchuria

  • When Japanese surrendered, both tried to occupy as much territory as possible; GMD advantage:
    • Recognised by foreign powers as legitimate gov. of China = given right to take surrender of Japanese forces still in China
    • US aircraft transported 500,000 Nationalist troops to north for this, but in doing so, moving to areas under CCP control
    • US troops took control of Beijing & Tianjin in north
      • In response, CCP began to move into Manchuria (coal, industrialised, agricultural)

Attempts to avoid a civil war

October 1949 agreement reached where both sides agreed to principles. Main issues that divided the GMD & CCP in their negotiations:

  • Control of military forces & local governments in areas under CCP control
  • Mao not prepared to relinquish control on ground; Jiang determined to extend control

Stalin/Soviet: as long as conflict continued, China remain weak &


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