Gillmor We Media (2004)
The internet is a catalyst which challenges big media (Hegemony)
Citizen Journalism is media made by the people for the people, free to express opinions with no journalistic 'gate keeping'
See's bloggers as the former audience and now are media generators
e.g. Salam Pax - The Baghadad Blogger
Suggests if you give people the internet then you will have democracy.
Broadband acces in the Middle East will be better than wars.
Media enforces ideologies in 2 State Appratus
RSA (repressive) physical control e.g. laws, police
ISA (ideological) media, chruch, education
Only need the RSA (to control the masses) if the ISA (seems normal/natural) doesn't work
e,g China, Thailand, Iran, Burma
The public sphere replaced by Infotainment (information presented for entertainment)
New electronic media as reviving the publc debate
e.g. bloggers - utopian
Used by pro-democracy campaigners to contest rigged elections in Iran.
Uploaded video of violence to Twitter/Youtube to show the world and bring about democratic change
Austin Heap - 'Haystack' assisted them with software to by Iranian controls over the internet.
The great leveller of humanity - Tim Berners-Lee (inventor)
If everyone as the same access to information = equality and democracy
Examples of We Media: Wikipedia, Youtube, Blogsphere, Forums, Facebook, Twitter
Facebook & Twitter has allowed people in dictarships to protest for freedom.
Used social networking to organise protests in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen & Libya.
It was not expected that social network could have such a political impact globally.
China e.g. 1 - China vs Google. Google accussed China of cyber-attacks and then finished any business with China - this didn't look good for the democratic image they were trying to promote.
China e.g. 2 - 'The 50- cent Army' - special bloggers who get paid 50c for every pro china story published - true or not.
China e.g. 3 - Ghostnet, large scale cyber spy ware operation.
News Media Industry
Biggest industry facing the challenge of We Media is the Newspaper.
Now We Media allows news access for free without buying a newspaper.
Rupert Murdoch as started charging people to view The Times Online.
The internet and interactive digital tv = more democratic viewing.
e.g. BBC Iplayer - people have the power to watch what they want when they want - Utopian.
Reality TV - public can be famous easier, without any real talent e.g. Big Brother, The Apprentice.
TV Votes - people have the choice to vote for their favourites - utopian, e.g. X- Factor, Britains Got Talent, I'm a Celebrity.
However, evidence of dishonest voting system and financial impropriety in rigged phone votes.
Chris Bouchard created the film "The Hunt for Gollum" on a £3000 budget it got 3.5 million hits on Youtube.
Do film makers really need Hollywood?
Home editing software allows for amateurs to create there own films.
Paranormal Activity used online forums to help get a cast and crew.
Myspace and Facebook, were used to promote the film to get released.
Have benefited through - iTunes
and Suffered through illegal downloads - Pirate Bay & Limewire.
Resulting in the Digial Economy Bill.
Artisitc Freedom - use Myspace and Youtube to gain a record deal
e.g. The Artic Monkeys, Lily Allen and Justin Bieber
Dangers of We Media
- The Hyperpublic - whole life details online, not safe
- Terrorism - Al Queda network used to promote false ideologies
- Cyberwarfare - malware & trogen horses attack foreign countries
- Google Search - records everything and can be tracked to you and your computer
- Iphone/Android Tracking - tracks your every movement, who knows who could get this information
- Cyber-bullying - bullying online due to freedom of speech and no censors
- Streetview - took all people's wi-fi data "accidently" what could they do with this information
- Twit-pic - stealing people's rights to their own pictures uploaded online.
- Super Injunctions - being leaked on the internet but newspapers aren't allowed.