Water World

By this end of this chapter, I should:

1. know the hydrological cycle

2. Water cycle

3. Decline in availability

4. physical and economic water scarcity

5. Global warming

6. sources of H20 Pollution

7. developed and developing countries

8. Impacts of pollution

9. Reservoir building

9. deforestation

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  • Created by: Debz97
  • Created on: 08-05-14 19:49

Hydrological cycle

Hydrological cycle:

A finite amout of water which goes round and round, without any lost or added. It's a closed system. 

Stores: Rocks, soil, oceans and lakes which hold up relatively small amounts of fresh water. 

Transfers: Groundwater flow, infiltration, precipitation, throughflow, surface run-off. 

Water Cycle: As the population increase, so does the demand for water and agriculture. This could lead to potential water wars in the middle east. 

Decline in availability of Water: 

  • Urbanisation
  • industrial development
  • tourism
  • agricultural demands
  • climate change
  • population growth


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More water

Water stress: When the demand for water is greater than the supply, or when the water is not of good enough quallity to be used. 

Water Scarcity:

  • Physical - The demand for water is greater than the availability of water (developed countries)
  • Economic - There is water available, but can't afford to exploit them (developing)

SAHEL Case study

Global warming:

  • Less rain for some areas
  • more extreme weather (droughts, floods and storms)
  • increased rate of glaciers melt. 
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Water Quality

People can suffer economic water stress if water isnt safe. 

Pollution can be:

  • domestic
  • industrial
  • agricultural
  • transport related

Sources of water pollution:

  • Sewage
  • cattle waste
  • industrial discharge
  • crop spraying
  • fertilisers washed in
  • salt runoff from roads 
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pollution

Developed Countries

  • Take large steps to controlling pollution
  • Tertiary and quaternary sectors cause less pollution

Developing countries

  • Where high levels of pollution is found
  • Put economic growth before environmental protection.

Japan Case Study

Impacts of pollution:

  • Diseases (cholera)
  • Eutrophication (fertilisers make algae grow really fast, which takes up O2 in the water, causing the living things in the water to die
  • Cancer 
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Water cycle

How do people intervene in the water cycle?

  • Overabstraction
  • deforestation
  • global warming
  • urbanisation
  • building dams and reservoirs
  • cloud seeding 

Overabstraction: Taking too much water from the river/lake/water source. 

Thames Valley case study 

Reservoir building:

Conflicts:

  • Loss of land (villages drowned)
  • Diseases (stagnant water - mosquitoes)

Benefits: 

  • Water supply & Recreation (fishing, sailing, walking, wildlife)
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Deforestation and dams

Deforestation:

  • Fewer tress - less evapotranspiration
  • Soil exposed to sun and rain
  • Less interception - greater flood risk  

SOLUTION: Large scale - Big dams 

BENEFITS OF DAMS: 

  • Water supply
  • receational use
  • Habitat for water birds

CONFLICTS OF DAMS: 

  • less of farmland
  • less navigation
  • disease - stagnant water
  • less cultural sites 

China case study

Three Gorges Dam 

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Large scale solutions

Deforestation:

  • Fewer tress - less evapotranspiration
  • Soil exposed to sun and rain
  • Less interception - greater flood risk  

SOLUTION: Large scale - Big dams 

BENEFITS OF DAMS: 

  • Water supply
  • receational use
  • Habitat for water birds

CONFLICTS OF DAMS: 

  • less of farmland
  • less navigation
  • disease - stagnant water
  • less cultural sites 

China case study

Three Gorges Dam 

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Small scale solutions

NGO's (Non-Government organisations) WATERAID

  • Find Appropiate intermediate solutions - schemes that meet the needs of the local people and the environment
  • They continue to run schemes when NGO has left e.g Rainwater, Tube wells

Dhaka, Bangladesh

PROBLEMS:

  • High number of people suffering from diseases such as HIV - Too ill to operate.  
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Small scale solutions

NGO's (Non-Government organisations) WATERAID

  • Find Appropiate intermediate solutions - schemes that meet the needs of the local people and the environment
  • They continue to run schemes when NGO has left e.g Rainwater, Tube wells

Dhaka, Bangladesh

PROBLEMS:

  • High number of people suffering from diseases such as HIV - Too ill to operate.  
9 of 9

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