- Created by: taylab123
- Created on: 23-04-19 22:14
The Aral Sea
Formed 5.5m years ago due to a fall in sea level and tectonic processes; it is a endorheic (closed) basin.
It has 3 inputs: 1)The Syr Darya (March-August flood season), 2)The Amu Darya (Mar-April, melt of snowfields), 3) Groundwater flow and annual precipitation
Annual discharge of 56km3 and natural evaporation of 63km3
Pre 1960s usage was for the fishing industry and for tourism; land improvment was made by irrigation via canal development. The post 1960s Soviet 'Grand Transformation Plan' saw a massive expansion in cotton production and intensification of agriculture.
Implications of water mismanagement include the over-abstraction of water, declining water quality, decreasing productivity and the salinisation of agricultural soils.
The social and economic effects on people include a lower life expectancy, high perinatal mortality, increased disabilities, poverty, migration and international relation conflicts over water.
Water resources: challenges and opportunities 1
Water as a resource is abiotic, finite and capitalist. Between the years of 1990-2025 the world global water consumption has increased.
Water is a commodity-a process through which a good is given monetary value determined by the market exchange. Issues with water include that there are increasing demand and prices, a decline of water availability, a change to the hydrological cycle, a change to precipitation patterns, a lack of access to safe drinking water and the risk of water borne disease.
Water stress-annual water supplies drop below 1700m3 per person, Water scarcity-below 1000m3 per person, Absolute scarcity-below 500m3 per person.
Millenium Development Goal 7-'recognised the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights'.
Solutions of water management include approaches such as liberal environmentalism, green neoliberalism, market environmentalism, the privatisation of water and the conflict over the supply/demand of water.
International waters-there are 276 transboundary river basins in the world and 200 transboundary aquifers
Water resources: challenges and opportunities 2
There are 37 cases of reported violence between states over water resources, and there are 7200 water treaties.
The benefits of water co-operation include reduce political tensions, peace and security, sustainable development, poverty alleviation and universal water access.
It has been recorded that 783m people do not have access to water, 2.5bn do not have adequate sanitation and 6-8m die annually due to water-related disease.
Surface water: trials, tribulations and challenges
Surface water-water that is either flowing or stored at or very close to the Earth's surface.