Types of verbs  

dynamic - an action that takes place     types: activity, process, momentary 

stative - a state or condition which is not likely to change       types: perception, relation

main - a verb that expresses the main meaning of the phrase (I will run)

auxiliary - a verb that supports the main verb (i will run)

primary - can act as a main verb as well as primary (be, have, do)

modal - can change the meaning of a phrase and the intentions, only act as auxiliary

e.g. can, could, must, might, may, shall, should, would, will

infinitive - the base form of a verb (to walk, to dance)

transitive - verbs that need an object to make sense (I will make ... )

intransitive - verbs that don't need an object to make sense (I will die)

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present - shows action that is happening now (I work)

past - shows action that happened in the past (I worked)

future - shows an action that is happening in the future (I will work)

present continuous - the action is going on (I am working)

past continuous - an action that was going on in the past (I was working )

future continuous - an action that will be ongoing in the future (I will be working)

present perfect - an action that began in the past but is finished in the present (I have worked)

past perfect - an action that began in the past and finished in the past (I had worked)

future perfect - an action that will begin and end in the future (I will have worked)

present perfect continuous - an action that is continuous, but has finished (I have been working)

past perfect continuous - an action was ongoing but has finished in the past (I have been working)

future perfect continuous - an action that will be ongoing but will end in the future (i will have been working)

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Types of nouns 

abstract - things that don't exist physically like feelings or qualities 

friendship, sadness

concrete - things that exist physically 

hand, house, tiger

common - less specific ways of referring to types of places and people's feelings

city, man, planet, excitement 

proper - specific places or people, usually begin with a capital letter 

Paris, Andrew, Venus

collective - a group of things e.g. people animal, objects

team, family, flock

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types of pronouns 

reflexive - used to indicate when the object of the verb is the same as the subject (-selves / -self)

relative - act as linking words in a sentence (who, whom, whose, which, that)

demonstrative - used to point at something  (this, these, that, there)

personal - replace the subject or object  (I, he, him, me, it)

possessive - these show possessions (his, hers, theirs, mine, ours)

interrogative - used when asking questions (who, what, where, when, why)

indefinite - don't refer to any specific people or things (someone, anything, no one, everything)

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Roles of adjectives - evaluative, descriptive, emotive 

comparative - used to make a comparison (add -er to the end of the word or add more)

superlative - used to make a comparison (add - est to the end of the word or add most)

irregular - e,g, good - better - best    bad - worse - worst 

attributive - adjective before the noun, giving it prominence 

predicative - adjectives after the noun

multipurpose - some words are both adjectives and adverbs (e.g. hard)

circumstance - tells you about the manner, frequency or place 

degree - tells you how much the modifier is meant (very really)

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Syntax - sentence and clauses

Types of sentences 

simple sentence - consists of one clause and one verb. usually occurs in speech 

compound sentence - two simple sentences stuck together by a conjunction, both clauses should make sense on their own

complex sentence - has more than two clauses, where one or more are a subordinate clause 

Types of clauses 

adverbial - usually explains when, where or why something happens (*look for verbs)

front focus - subordinate clause at the front, giving it priority and the attention of the reader

end focus - subordinate clause at the end, gives attention to anything before it 

embedded - in the middle of two other clauses, not given prominence (giving information?)

parallelism - a clause that is repeated, maybe for a rhetorical effect

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Syntax - sentence and phrases

purpose of sentences

declarative - usually to make statements and usually used in informational texts 

interrogative - ask questions, used in adverts to involve and persuade the audience 

imperative - these give instructions, usually start with a verb and ignores the subject 

exclamatory - these are emphatic, usually ends with an exclamation mark 

types of phrases 

noun - centred around a noun

modifying - adverbial (modify a verb) or  adjectival (modify a noun)

prepositional - describes where something is 

verb - headword of the phrase is a main verb 

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Phonology (A-I)

alliteration - repetition of a sound at the beginning 

assonance - repetition of similar vowels 

consonance - repetition of consonant sounds  

consonant clusters - a group of consonants produced together 

consonants - all sounds except vowels 

emphatic stress - emphasising a word or phrase

falling intonation - pitch going down at the end 

half rhyme - almost/nearly a rhyme 

homonym - words that look the same but pronounced differently 

homophone - sounds the same but spelt differently 

intonation - pitch going up or down 

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Phonology (N-V)

non-verbal communication - meaning conveyed without words 

non-lexical onomatopoeia - clusters of sounds that have a meaning 

onomatopoeia - word creates the sound that is being made 

paralinguistics - things that add meaning (e.g. expression)

phonological cohesion - phonological patterns 

phonology - sounds used for effects

pitch - high or low sounds

prosodics - vocal elements adding meaning 

rhyme - words that end with the same sound 

rising intonation - pitch goes up on an utterance 

vowels - sounds created with unrestricted airflow 

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Spoken language and transcripts (pt 1)

solidarity - speech converges (emphasis similarity), upwards becoming more formal, downwards becoming less formal 

status - speech diverges from the other participant (emphasis status)

turn-taking - conversation structure e.g. answer, question 

back-channel behaviour - showing you're listening, e.g. nodding your head 

false start - start with one thing but carry on with something else 

interruption - cutting in someones speech

latch - someone carrying on speech, straight after 

minimal response - being blunt 

mirroring - repeat back what was said 

overlap - not an interruption but similar to a latch, a natural take over 

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Spoken language and transcripts (pt 2)

reformulation - explaining something in a different way 

self-repair - correcting yourself, can look like a false start but isn't 

tag questions - rising intonation added to the end of a sentence, usually to confirm something 

positive face - doing something to be liked 

negative face - doing your own thing 

face-threatening acts - blunt responses, sometimes passive-aggressive or rude 

positive politeness - reinforce the closeness of the speakers 

negative politeness - emphasis the distance between people

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