Knights of Labour
-Founded in 1869 by Uriah Smith Stephens
-Achieved some success (attracted membership of the National Labor Union
-Aimed to remove barriers of racial and cultural origin imposed by current unions
-Reputation was destroyed after the violence of the Haymarket Affair in 1886
American Federation of Labor
-Replaced KOL after foundation in 1886
-1st successful national labour federation seeking to link all unions; became the largest
-Samuel Gompers was the leader- argued that they had to stand up to large corporations by use of bargaining power
-Sought reform through legislation but also striked and boycotted to gain momentum
Industrial Workers of the World
-Set up in 1905
-Known as the 'Wobblies'
-Defended rights of poor and illiterate workers i.e immigrants
-Divisions in 1924 broke the strength of the organisation
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
-Labour union organised by African Americans who worked for the Pullman Company
-From 1925, for 12 years they struggled to win their first collective bargaining agreement
-Accepted by AFL in 1935
-Led by A. Philip Randolph
Congress of Industrial Organisations
-Formed in 1935 by unions within the AFL
-Black workers benefited from the opportunity to join this group
-Amalgamated with AFL which made it strong
-Bargained successfully with leading firms in industries like autos and chemicals. Contracts were negotiated.
-Wages rose steadily so union workers earned around 20% more than non-union workers.
-Benefits like medical insurance, paid holidays and pensions were obtained.
William H. Sylvis (1829-69)
-As secretary of the Journeyman Stove and Hollow-Ware Moulders Union of Philadelphia, he wished to build a national union of all iron moulder unions.
-He promoted dignityof working man and urged that membership shouldn’t divide along religious/racial lines- working class solidarity.
-Created the NLU in 1866 which campaigned for the 8-hour day and ending of convict labour etc.
Samuel Gompers (1850-1924)
-Marcus A. Hanna and J.P. Morgan worked with him (businessmen) giving workers right to mediated and conciliation.
-Persuaded Wilson to set up a Department of Labor and pass the Clayton Antitrust Act which limited the use of court injunctions against striking workers.
Henry Clay Frick (1849-1919)
-Partners with Andrew Carnegie
-Tough and ruthless businessman always keeping his eye on profits.
-His actions destroyed AA’s reputation and Carnegie Steel remained non-union for 40 year- operated the closed shop policy.
A. Phillip Randolph (1889-1979)
-Founding president of the 1st black trade union.
-1941 he won from Roosevelt an executive order “forbidding racial discrimination in federal government by threatening to lead a massive protest.
-Also managed to persuade Truman to end segregation in armed forces.
-Vice president of the merged of AFL-CIO.
-Had a motto of “Fight or Be Slaves”.
Henry Ford (1863-1947)
-Good example of ‘welfare capitalism’ at work.
-Had biggest factory complex in the world.
-He appeased his workers with a higher wage, but only to prevent striking.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
-New Deal creator.
-Introduced the NIRA which established NRA- national recovery administration (1933).
-Wagner Act was a turning point as collective bargaining was enabled and the National Labor Relations Board was set up to defend the workers.
John F. Kennedy & Lyndon B. Johnson
-Kennedy was the promoter of ‘New Frontier’- Equal Pay Act in 1963.
-Johnson came up with an extension to the above policy called ‘Great Society’ which implemented Economic Opportunity Act 1964 and Age Discrimination in Employment Act 1968.
-Both started a new era for change.
-He took the hard line with trade unionists especially when the Air Traffic Controller’s Strike took place in 1981.
-Hostile towards organised labour.
-Marked the start of a downturn for the trade union movement.