Unit 4: 1535-1540

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The Lincolnshire rising, October 1536

  • Religious concerns closely intertwined with political and economical ones.
  • Also bad harvests 1535-36 which made social tensions worse.
  • Ordinary people were behind it rather than nobility, prompted by a sermon from a local priest highlighting dangers from the Crown.
  • Parish property and rights under threat and demands made for Cromwells dismissal.
  • Resentment of central government interference in local affairs.
  • List of grievances drawn up by rebels cites high taxes and hatred of the statutes of uses- Law that changed the way in which property could be left in wills.Highlighted the King's feudal right to claim property on the death of a tenant.
  • No one cause motivated rebellion but much to do with the dissolution and religious change in general.
  • Lincolnshire rising ended quickly, rebels dispersed on hearing of the arrival of a royal army(Duke of Suffolk) Over by 18 October.
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The Pilgrimage of Grace, October- December 1536

  • Rebellion spread and + more serious revolt took place in Yorkshire.
  • Lead by Lawyer, Robert Aske, 30,000 men marched on York.
  • Aske declared rebellion to be a pilgirmage- Chose the banner of the five wounds of Christ as its standard.
  • Rebels swore a religious oath that contradicted the Supremacy and sang ballads in favour of the monasteries.
  • Policies drawn up at York oct 1536: Removal of evil councillors from Henry's Government. Restoration of the old faith. Protection of the Monasteries.
  • More support from the nobility including Lord Darcy.
  • Norfolks army -8,000- advantage for rebels.
  • Largest uprising of the Tudor period.
  • Many rebels had previous experience of fighting the scots. likely they would have won in a battle against royal forces.
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Why did the rebellion fail?

  • The leaders wanted to negotiate.
  • Aske had wanted to use show of force to make Henry listen to his demand. This was a success for Aske and other leaders.
  • Henry instructed Norfolk to agree to any demands. Agreements were reached on 6 Dec 1536 at Doncaster and rebels agreed to disperse peacefully.
  • Gov allowed free and general pardon- Henry's weak position.
  • Gov stopped collection of 1534 subsidy and denied rumours that parish churches under threat.
  • Rebels secured promise of a parliament ro be held by free election in York to consider complaints. Until parliament met, existing royal policies were suspended, including suppression of lesser monasteries.
  • Outbreak of unrelated revolts in 1537 gave Henry an excuse to retalliate and go back upon earlier promises.
  • Norfolk declared martial law in Carlisle and 84 rebels were hanged. Ringleaders from pilgrimage arrested + interrogated in London- they were executed including Aske, Sir Thomas Percy, Lord Darcy and Lord Hussey.
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The Fall of Anne Boleyn

  • She had reformed religious ideas.
  • Some argue there was a selfish aspect- break with Rome strengthened her position on the throne.
  • Idea of justification by faith- deeply personal from her time in France, She possessed scriptual commentaries and translations in french.
  • Used her proximity to Henry to encourage the evangelical cause, promotion of key figures such as Cranmer- influence over king.
  • All ten bishops appointed during her reign were of a reformed persuasion.
  • She introduced Henry to writings of William Tyndale(English Bible)
  • Jan 1536- miscarriage of a deformed foetus- Henry viewed this as an evil omen.
  • Conservatives like Gardiner and Norfolk dissapproved of her reformed views.
  • Thomas Howard (her uncle) hoped to undermine Cromwell's position through Anne's demise.
  • May 1536- she was accused of comitting multiple adultry, found guilty an executed.
  • Conservative faction at court led by Gardiner and Norfolk planned their assault carefully.
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Fall of Cromwell

  • Conservatives failed in bringing Cromwell down through Anne's demise- He controlled the events leading to her trial and execution, aligned himself with the anti-Boleyn faction but turned on them after her execution.
  • Made Lord Cromwell of Wimbledon and able to fill the privy chamber with his supporters.
  • France and the Empire were persecuting Protestants and would not make alliance with England- Henry felt isolated and vulnerable to attack as the papacy denounced Henry and called on a Catholic Europe to join a crusade against England.
  • Henry made a show of outward conservatism- executing John Lambert in 1538 and the act of six articles in 1539.
  • Cromwell intent on forging diplomatic rekations with German protestant princes- end isolation.
  • Marriage between Henry and Anne was disasterous 'Flanders mare'
  • Cromwell's enemies gathered information against him and presented to the King. -Cromwell had protected protestants at Calais. Unwilling to enforce the terms of 'six articles.'
  • Henry had been introduced to Norfolk's pretty niece and would soon marry her, putting Norfolk (Cromwell's enemy) in a strong position.
  • Cromwell executed in July 1540. - Conservative backlash on the cards.
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The Ten Articles 1536

  • Important that the new national Church produced a statement of faith.- Cromwell behind the completion.
  • A month later, Cromwell took a moderate stance against images in church and against pilgrimages. Number of holy days and saints' days limited in number.
  • Ten articles- move in evangelical direction but indication of the need for compromise and unity.
  • Cromwell was able to push the evangelical cause forward as he was vice gerent. He had to try to satisfy all parties so not obvious and using doctrinal definitions.
  • The articles only included 3 sacraments and no mention was made of the remaining four. - Protestant, reformers such as Luther upheld only 3 as they were the only ones to be found in the new testament. For evangelicals, doctrine and belief had to be grounded on scripture- test of validity.
  • Lutheran concept of justification by faith alone was outlined, but in a moderate fashion to make it acceptable to coservative clergy also.
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The Bishop's Book 1537

  • Dealt with four missing sacraments, justification and purgatory.
  • Admitted validity of missing sacraments but deemed lesser as they were not found in scripture.
  • Justification through merits of Christ did not dispence with the need for good works.
  • Primary function of priesthood was to preach the word, not the offering of Christ in mass.
  • Mass only mentioned twice in the book.
  • No distinction made between the office of bishop and that of priest- deviation from catholicism.
  • Ten commandments re-numbered to highlight mistaken practice of worshipping graven images.
  • Draft sent to Henry but he had no time to read it, later (1543) suuggested he was not entirely happy with it.
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The English Bible

  • Cromwell tried to bring about evangelical change slowly by; ensuring reformers were preffered to conservatives. Organising preaching campaigns against catholic practices(like worshipping images.) and Promoting the circulation and use of english bible.
  • Official translation- 1537.- Henry saw as a propaganda tool, consolidate his imperial kingship.
  • Vice gerent Cromwell saw it as the most significant step of placing the word of God into the hands of the common man.
  • He used £400 of his own money to begin the print run. 3000 bibles printed in Nov 1539. - all churches required a copy.
  • By 1540, retail price cut, affordable to individuals.
  • Publication marks high point of evangelical success in Henrician England.
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The Act of Six Articles 1539

  • Much to Henry's liking as he was much behind it.
  • Confirmed transubstantiation(conversion of bread and wine), private Masses and auricular confession.
  • Banned clerical marriage and the taking of communion in both kinds by the laity(only clergy recieved bread and wine, the laity only had bread as they were spiritually inferior) This was against protestant beliefs as everyone is equal in God's eyes.
  • Upheld vows of chastity which deeply worried Archbishop Cranmer as his marriage was an open secret.
  • Laws against heresy were to be strictly enforced and failure to comply with the six articles could lead to imprisonment, confiscation of property and death.
  • Reaffirmed Catholic worship
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Protestant vs Catholic by 1540

Protestant

  • Influence of the Papacy removed.
  • Monasteries destroyed.
  • Popular enthusiasm for catholicism diminished.- annual income of churches in the south decreased after supremacy.
  • Traditional Catholic rites extinguished.- saints' days reduced, pilgrimage, relic veneration and offering to images prohibited.

Catholic

  • No positive protestant reform- little advance made in reforming the standards and practice of the clergy. Little done to improve moral or educational standards among the English Clergy. Any advance of protestantism did not make henry's reign.
  • Catholism remained popular- many lives untouched by Henrician reform. However, some areas were very protestant and some very conservative. - depended upon leadership and influence of the local nobility- social superiors.
  • Protestants were not tolerated- Henry himself had a distaste for protestants. Reformation far from secure.
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Protestant vs Catholic by 1540

Protestant

  • Influence of the Papacy removed.
  • Monasteries destroyed.
  • Popular enthusiasm for catholicism diminished.- annual income of churches in the south decreased after supremacy.
  • Traditional Catholic rites extinguished.- saints' days reduced, pilgrimage, relic veneration and offering to images prohibited.

Catholic

  • No positive protestant reform- little advance made in reforming the standards and practice of the clergy. Little done to improve moral or educational standards among the English Clergy. Any advance of protestantism did not make henry's reign.
  • Catholism remained popular- many lives untouched by Henrician reform. However, some areas were very protestant and some very conservative. - depended upon leadership and influence of the local nobility- social superiors.
  • Protestants were not tolerated- Henry himself had a distaste for protestants. Reformation far from secure.
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