Types of physical evidence

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mobile phones

What evidence could it contain?

  • User's fingerprints
  • Telephonics (stored texts, deleted texts, call log, stored numbers, email, Facebook, internet history)
  • Still and moving images
  • User DNA (Epithelial - skin cells)
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condoms as evidence

  • Donor DNA (epithelial)
  • Donor DNA (*****)
  • Lubricant (brand matching)
  • Host DNA (epithelial, vaginal secrection)
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blood spatter as evidence

  • Arterial spatter
  • Directional spatter
  • White blood cells have a nucleaus therefore have DNA
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victims as evidence

  • Identity of the victim (DNA, dental, fingerprints)
  • Toxicology
  • Offender's DNA
  • Abrasion and defence wounds
  • Trace evidence
  • Cause of death
  • Time of death
  • Storage conditions
  • Orientation of the body
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Illicit drugs as evidence

  • Purity %
  • Cutting agents/ adulterants
  • Manufacturer logo
  • Method of synthesis
  • Country of origin
  • Chemical composition
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syringes as evidence

  • User DNA (point, blood flush)
  • Drug analysis
  • User DNA (epithelial)
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Questioned documents analysis

  • Colours
  • Chemical composition
  • Layer sequence
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Tools as evidence

  • Random unique marks made by tools during manufactoring
  • Undisturbed material
  • Unique damage to the tip edge
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knives as evidence

  • Victims DNA (White blood cells)
  • Pattern of blade
  • Check for trace evidence
  • Offenders fingerprints
  • Offenders DNA (epithelial) 
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Firearms as evidence

  • Serial number (unique to the weapon)
  • Toolmarks link to the fire rounds
  • Tissue of firer (DNA)
  • Offender's fingerprints (unfired weapon on smooth surfaces)
  • User DNA
  • Gun shot residue (GSR)
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Ammunition as evidence

  • Rifling impression
  • GSR
  • Calibre of firearm
  • Handlers fingeprints
  • Victims tissue and blood (DNA)
  • Impact materials
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glove print marks as evidence

  • Wearer's DNA
  • Random unique defects
  • wear and damage
  • location of grip
  • natural creases in dried leather
  • wearer's fingerprints
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footwear marks as evidence

  • gait
  • sole patterns
  • wear and damage
  • distribution of pressure
  • size of foot
  • debris from shoe
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