When: Signed in 1882
Who: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
Why: Germany had defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War and had taken Alsace-Lorraine from France. They realised that France would want revenge so made a series of alliances to isolate France.
Also this was a defensive alliance; if one country was attacked, the others will help.
They also wanted to separate France and Russia.
Who: Britain and France
Why: Britain was worried about the size of the German Naval fleet.
Germany made it clear that they didn't want to ally with Britain or France.
Both were fearful over the growth of Germany.
What: It was an agreement, not an alliance. Won't defend each other if attacked.
Britain was in splendid isolation.
Resolves colonial disuputes.
Who: Russia and Britain
Why: Relationship had improved due to them both supporting France at Algeciras.
Solution to several colonial disputes, especially in Persia and Tibet.
What: Not a military alliance.
Not designed to surround Germany but Germany saw it that way.
Britain, France and Russia became known as the Triple Entente - Not an alliance but an agreement but German believed it to be a threat.