Treaty of Versailes

history aqa revision for exam in june 2012

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Georges

Georges Clemenceau

He was the Prime Minister of France.

 

He wanted revenge, and to punish the Germans for what they had done.

 

He wanted to make Germany pay for the damage done during the war.

 

He also wanted to weaken Germany, so France would never be invaded again.

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Woodrow

Woodrow Wilson

He was President of America.

 

He was a History professor. He wanted to make the world safe.  He wanted to end war by making a fair peace.

 

In 1918, Wilson published ‘Fourteen Points saying what he wanted.

 

He said that he wanted disarmament, and a League of Nations (where countries could talk out their problems, without war).

 

He also promised self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe.

  

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David lloyd

David Lloyd George

He was Prime Minister of Great Britain.

 

He said he would ‘make Germany pay’ – because he knew that was what the British people wanted to hear.

 

He wanted ‘justice’, but he did not want revenge. He said that the peace must not be harsh – that would just cause another war in a few years time.  He tried to get a ‘halfway point’ – a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.

  

He ALSO wanted to expand the British Empire, maintain British control of the seas, and increase Britain's trade

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14 points

1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at").

2. Free navigation of all seas.

4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers

14. A League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial
       independence of all states.

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territorial changes

France took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Provinces of Alsace (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Provinces of Lorraine (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) German coal mines in the Saar Region for 15 years

Belgium took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Small areas of Eupen (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Small areas of Malmèdy (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Small areas of Moresńet (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Small areas of St. Vith

Czechoslovakia took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Small border area near Troppau (now Opava)

Denmark took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Northern Schelswig

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territorial changes continued

Poland took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Most of West Prussia (http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Much of the Posen (now Poznan) province

The Allies took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Germany’s Rhineland for 15 years

The League of Nations took away:

(http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0215466/_themes/2002-wwii/expbul1a.gif) Danzig, (now Gdansk, Poland)

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Diktat

the treaty of versailles was known as a diktat because it was a harsh settlement imposed upon germany the defeated country, in which they had no say in. they just had to accept it.

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military restrictions

German army reduced to 100,000 men.

No submarines.

The Rhineland was to be de-militarised and occupied by the Allies for 15 years.

Manufacture, import and export of weapons and poison gas was banned.

ARMY: no more than 100,000 men and no conscription (volunteers only).

no armoured cars or tanks

AIRFORCE: none, no aircraft allowed.


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guilt clause article 231

"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies."

germany payed £6.6b

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Weaknessess and Strentghs

The weakness of the Treaty of Versailles were humiliation of Germany, ignoring of colonial interests and self-determination, and ignored the Russian Bolsheviks demands.

one of the strengths of the league is that it gave independence to countries such as Poland and Yugoslavia. also one of the strentghs is that it was set up by the 3 biggest powers of that time.

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why germans hated the treaty

When the Germans heard about the Treaty of Versailles, they felt ‘pain and anger’.   They felt it was unfair.   It was a 'Diktat' – an IMPOSED settlement.  They had not been allowed to take part in the talks – they had just been told to sign.

    they hated clause 231 because they didn't feel like they were to blame for the war, the reparations were so high that they told Britain and France that 'they were trying to starve their children' at first they refused to pay but in the end they did.

they hated their tiny army while everyone else had a big army

The Germans also hated the loss of territory.  Germany lost a tenth of its land - they claimed that the treaty was simply an attempt to destroy their economy.  Other nations were given self-determination – but the Treaty forced Germans to live in other countries.  Germans were also angry that they could not unite with the Austrian Germans.

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