- Created by: lwilson23
- Created on: 28-01-19 18:33
Native Americans (1960s)
- their land was removed from them in the 1830 INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - sent to unsuitable land. Wanted these lands to be returned to them along with their self-determination.
- the BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS was responsible for Native American affairs in the US, began a 'termination' campaign which forced Native Americans to throw off old life to assimilate into society, most resisted but by 1970 830,000 lived in cities, with termination starting in 1930.
- the Civil Rights movement for Native Americans had no leader, but consisted of activists who formed groups such as the American Indian Movement (AIM) (NON-VIOLENT) and the Alcatraz Red Power Movement (ARPM) which were more RADICAL.
- Nixon sympathised with them, granting acts such as the INDIAN EDUCATION ACT in 1972 which funded non-English schools and the 1975 INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION ACT which granted Native Americans control over their own healthcare and education.
- overall the movement can be stated to not be that successful as despite being given self-determination they were still forced to assimilate without their land being returned.
Hispanic Americans (1960s)
- the movement strived for LAND, WORKER'S RIGHTS, and an end to DISCRIMINATION/DEPORTATION.
- BRACERO PROGRAMME (1942) - invited Mexicans to US to work as cheap labour, 4.6 mil entered.
- unlike the Native Americans, the movement had a leader, CESAR CHAVEZ - who set up the NATIONAL FARM WORKERS ASSOCIATION (NFWA) - blended Gandhi's and MLK's methods.
- also made up of THE BROWN BERETS (the Hispanic equivalent of the Black Panthers).
- the movement did achieve success, for example the CUBAN ADJUSTMENT ACT which granted citizenship to Cubans (and only Cubans) who lived in the US for 1 year.
- also improved educational standards (1974 EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES ACT etc.)
- the 1975 VOTING RIGHTS ACT granted vote to Hispanics as well as Native Americans with Chavez's campaigns also making local differences. However success varied between different states and some land disputes still persist today.
LGBT Rights (1969-2003)
- gay people seen as Communist sympathizers, treated very much the same way as immigrants during the red scares (gay hunting known as the 'lavender scares').
- discriminated against due to this, aimed to decriminalise homosexuality and increase gay pride.
- homosexuality was illegal in every US state until 1962, not fully decriminalised until 2003. They were also a target of the KKK.
- 1969 STONEWALL INN brawl erupted due to the police acting aggressively towards homosexuals in a gay bar. Led to GAY LIBERATION FRONT being formed.
- first gay official, HONEY MILK, elected to city council of San Francisco in 1977.
- the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s wasn't really dealt with until ACT-UP brought attention to it, by 1992 they had received $2 billion for AIDS research.