Transformation of graphs


f (x) a

moves up 'a' units

1 of 6

f (x) - a

moves down 'a' units

2 of 6

f (x + a)

moves left 'a' units

3 of 6

f (x - a)

moves right 'a' units

4 of 6

af (x)

stretches away from the x-axis 'a' units

5 of 6

f (ax)

concertinas towards y axis 'a' units

6 of 6


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