Topic 1C -Diet and health


Diet, energy and carbohydrates

  • Weight gain-energy intake is higher than output-excess turned into fat reserves by body
  • Weight loss-energy intake is lower than output-more taken from fat reserves in body
  • E input-E output=energy budget
  • Energy budget=amount of e taken in and used up
  • Simple-monosaccharides:glucose, fructose, galactose
  • Disaccharides:Sucrose, lactose, maltose
  • Complex-polysaccharides:starch, glycogen, cellulose-no osmotic effect
  • Sucrose=glucose+fructose
  • Lactose=glucose+galactose
  • Maltose=glucose+glucose
  • Starch-amylose-unbranched,tight spirals, v.compact, a-glucose 1-4 glycosidic bonds, amylopectin-branched, 1-6 glycosidic bonds, many terminal ends to be hydrolysed
  • Glycogen-similar to amylopectin
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Triglycerides and cholesterol

  • E store-plants+animals
  • insoluble-no osmotic effect
  • protects organs, insulation, buoyancy
  • Saturated-tesselated, solid, LDL, single CB,animals+fish
  • Unsaturated-liquid,2 CB alter angle of chain, reduce IMF strength, Kinks chain, prevents tesselation, HDL, plants+fish
  • esterfication-with water
  • condensation reaction
  • Cholesterol needs to be attached to protein to move around body-lipoportein
  • LDL-mainly lipid, transport cholesterol from liver to blood, increases total blood cholesterol (low)
  • HDL-mainly protein,transport cholesterol from tissues to liver to be recycled, reduced tbc (high)
  • W/h-apple=more visceral fat,more risk, pear=less visceral fat,less risk, BMI=mass/height^2
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