Topic 1 (Cells)


Animal Cells and Organelles


Nucleus - Controls the Cell ( Contains DNA)

Mitochondria - Releasing energy through respiration

Cytoplasm - Site of chemical reactions

Cell Membrane - Controls what goes in and out of the cell

Ribosomes - Site of protein synthesis

Epithelial = Skin Cell

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Plant Cells and Organelles


Nucleus - Controls the Cells

Mitochondria - Releases energy through respiration

Choloroplasm - Site of chemical reactions

Cell Wall - Supports the Cell

Membrane - Controls what goes in and out

Ribosomes - Makes protein

Vacuole - Contains Cell Sap

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Plant Cell Structure and Specialisation

Region where most chemical reactions take place = Cytoplasm

A large , permanent space containing fluid = Vacuole

Abosrbs light energy = Chloroplast

Controls the activities of the cell = Nucleus

Gives the cell strength and support = Cell Wall

Controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell = Cell Membrane

Xylem vessel - transport water and dissolved mineral ions up the plants

Root hair cell - main site of photosynthesis

Leaf cell - absorbs water and dissolved mineral ions from soil

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Specialised Cells

Xylem cell - one way only , no end walls between cells , water and minerals , thick walls stifferned with lighting.

Vascular tissue in plants which conducts water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the root.  Basic Function - transports water from roots , stems and leaves. It also transports nutrients.

Bacterial Cells

Prokaryotic cell - found in bacteria and cyanobacteria. ( They contain no nucleus)

Eukaryotic - found in protista , fungi, olants and animals. ( They contain nucleus)

Organelles - This means cell part

Flagellum - the tail

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Cell differentiation and mitosis

During the development of a multi-celled organism cells differentiate to form specialised cells. They do this by acquiring different sub-cellular structures.


- one cell splits into two identical daughter cells ( Cloaning)

- Before the cell can be divided the chromosome have to divide in number.

Mitosis is the process of cell division in our bodies. There are 6 stages in the process.

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