The Nature and Variety of Living Organisms

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The Nature And Variety Of

Living Organisms

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS

Movement - can move by either using muscles or by growing

Respiration - use this process which releases energy for the organism to use

Sensitivity - can respond to their surroundings or internal contditions

Nutrition - need certain nutrients in order to survive and either make their own food or eat other organisms

Excretion - dispose of waste products from the body

Reproduction -reproduce to continue the species and make new organims

Growth - grow and develop which increases their size or complexity

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VARIETY OF LIVING ORGANISMS

Plants

  • Multi-cellular
  • Chloroplasts for Photosynthesis
  • Glucose can be turned into: cellulose for cell walls; starch for storage; and sucrose for transport
  • Examples: maize, peas, oak tree, daffodil

Animals

  • Have two groups: invertebrates (jellyfish, worms); and vertebrates (mammals, amphibians)
  • Multi-cellular
  • Cannot photosynthesise so feed off other animals and plants
  • Store carbohydrates as glycogen
  • No cell wall so the cells and the animals can move
  • Oftern have a complex nervous system
  • Examples: earthworm, elephant, housefly
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VARIETY OF LIVING ORGANISMS

Fungi

  • Cell wall made of Chitin
  • Uni and multi-cellular
  • Cannot photosynthesise
  • Uses extracellular digestion and absorbs food
  • Stores energy as glycogen
  • Usually have mycellium made from thread-like hyphae
  • Examples: Yeast, Moulds, Mushrooms, Mucor

Protoctists

  • Organims that do not fit into animals plants or fungi
  • Single-celled and usually microscopic
  • Some have or look like plants cells
  • Most have features like an animal cell
  • Examples: Amoeba, Chlorella, Plasmodium
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VARIETY OF LIVING ORGANISMS

Bacteria

  • Single-celled organisms that are small, simple, basic shapes
  • Cell wall made of Murein
  • No nucleus so just have circular DNA or small rings of DNA called plasmids
  • Some species can photosynthesise others digest and absorb products
  • Reproduce by splitting - Binary Fission
  • Examples: Pathogens, Pneumonia, Yoghurt

Viruses

  • Do not belong to a kingdom as it is a kingdom itself
  • Can only reproduce inside living cells
  • Can only be seen under an electron microscope
  • Composed of a core of genetic material (DNA / RNA)
  • Surrounded by a protein coat
  • Examples: HIV (causes AIDS), Tobacco Mosaic (discolours leaves of tobacco), Influeza
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PATHOGENS

  • Pathogens are organisms that cause disease
  • Many bacteria and viruses are pathogens
  • A few protoctists cause disease
  • A few fungi can be classes as pathogens
  • Examples: Bacteria - Pneumococcus; Viruses - Influenza; Protoctists - Plasmodium; Fungi - Athlete's Foot
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