-Returned from campaign in the East having created his eastern settlements.
-However this was blocked by the Optimates.
-Pompey was reliant on populares and a tribune to ratify the settlement therefore this was a blow to his prestige.
-This also prevented him from honouring his promises to his veterans.
-Pompey had also sought the hand of Cato's niece in marriage yet had another public rejection.
Main goal- land for veterans
-Spokesman for equestrian tax farmers in Asia.
-Due to Mithridatic War, tax farmers suffered great losses and asked Crassus to appeal to Senate for a rebate.
-This was an outrageous request which was rejected by Optimates.
-Cicero was trying to protest unity between senate and equites supported this request which was naive.
-Crassus was also damaged by accusations of bribery of jurors in Bona Dea scandal.
Main goal- popularity and wealth
-Returned from Spain in 60BC and wanted consulship of 59BC.
-Also was awaiting a triumph for his success in Spain so was unable to enter Rome whilst still in command of his troops.
-Senate offered him either triumph or consulship because he couldn't stand in absentia for consulship.
-Caesar forewent his triumph in favour of consulship but had senatorial opposition.
-Cato's cousin Bibulus, was being supported to stand against Caesar for consul.
-Senate decided prior to elections on provinces to be alloted- Caesar granted paths and woodlands of Rome.
- There was senatorial opposition to these three men and Caesar had previously supported Pompey and Crassus.
What did they have to gain?
-Caesar- consulship with support of the other two and command in Gaul.
-Crassus- short-term financial objectives which a 'tame' consul could satisfy and a political caolition which could stand up to Pompey.
-Pompey- previous use of 'tame' consuls (Piso 61, Afranius 60) and tribune (Flavius 60) failed to get his settlement ratified, there was no other options.
First Triumvirate was formed- this was an unofficial pand remained secret for considerable time.
The first triumvirate
- Cicero was asked to join on two occasions yet refused.
-The idea of a political coalition (amicitae) wasn't unusual at Rome.
-Combination of support, prestige, wealth and popularity.
Three important stages of triumvirate
- Formation (59BC)
- 'Pressure period'- (58-56BC)- Luca and reconciliation
- Break down (53BC)
-Caesar was a poularis and was elected with the individual backing of Pompey and Crassus.
-He immediately started a programme of legislation to satisfy his bankers.
-Senate were opposed to this ( Bibulus- co-consul- had been put forward for office by Cato and the Senate to check Caesar).
-Land bill was proposed- Caesar was moderate in his approach and open to compromise however the Senate rejected it.
-Caesar forced to put it to the assembly anyway and Bibulus vetoed.
-Caesar called Pompey and Crassus to the forum (and some veterans) and using the threat of force, the bill was passed.
-Provision of the land bill:
- Land for Pompey's veterans to be purchased with funds from the eastern settlement.
- Later, Lex Campania passed: public lands in Italy to be divided into 20000 allotments to urban poor.
- Land had been previously been a great source of Roman revenue therefore hostility when splitting it up.
-Pompey was upset with the use of force and threats to pass the bill and opened the popular figure up to the hostility of the people.
-Pompey married Julia, Caesar's daughter.
-Vatinius, a tribune used Caesar to:
- Ratify Pompey's eastern settlement.
- Rebate 1/3 tax contract for equestrians.
- Proposed that Caesar be given Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum as pro-consular provinces; with imperium for 5 years and with an army of three legions.
-Despite 'unfavorouble omens' declared for the passing of the provincial amendment, the bill was passed.
-Transalpine Gaul and an additional legion was also added on later on the death of its governor.
Ptolemy Auletes: recognised by Triumvirate as king of Egypt and paid Rome handsomely.
-He limited the amount that governors and staff could requisition from provinces and limits on gifts and compulsory strict accounts and statements.
-Caesar continued to legislation throughout 59BC but had no thought for the consitution and a willingness to use violence.
-There was open opposition to the triumvirate.
-Cicero was commited to Pompey and therefore prevented him openly opposing the triumvirate.
-Cicero hoped that it would break up naturally.
-Only Cicero was recognised as having the power to persuade Pompey to break form the others and Caesar in recognition with this offered again for Cicero to join his staff.
Preparations for the future
- Consulship handed on to Gabinus and Piso (both well disposed to Caesar).
-Needed a tame tribune- Clodius to control Cicero and Cato whilst Caesar took up his province.
-Used his stats as Pontifex Maximus to change Clodius' status to a plebian from a patrician so he can become a tribune- very unusual.
-Cicero then realised the danger he faced from Clodius.