The Endocrine system

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 20-10-18 17:15

The Endocrine system sends information as chemical

Endocrine system is also known as the hormone system

Gland- group of cells that are specialised to secrete a useful substance 

Hormones-  chemical messengers many are proteins. 

  • 1)Hormones are secreted when a gland is stimulated - by eletrical impulses or change in concentration 
  • 2)Hormones diffuse directly into the blood and are taken throughout the body via the curculatory system
  • 3)They are then diffused all other the body and then binds to specific receptors on target cells
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The Endocrine system sends information as chemical

  • The hormones trigger a response in the target cells - the effectors 

E.G 

Stimulus -low blood glucose concentration>>> receptors - receptors on pancreas cells detect the low blood glucose concentration>>>hormones- The pancreas releases the hormone glucagon into the blood>>> effectors- target cells in the liver detect glucagon and convert glucagon into the glucose>>> Glucose is released into the blood, so glucose concentration increases. 

  • The endocrine system is resposnible for regulating  large number if bodily functions such as Growth, metoblism, sleep and reproduction . 
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Several major glands

Hypothalumus- produces hormones that control the pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland- Known as the master gland becuase it releases hormones to control other glands in the endocrine system  

Pineal Gland- Responsible for the production of melotonin, which plays a role in the control of sleep patterns.

Thyroid Gland- Produces hormone thyroxine. The Thyroid is responsible for controlling metabolic rate and regulates growth and maturtion.

Parathyroid Glands- Produce hormone called the parathyroid hormone.  helps control levels of minerals such - calcium within the body

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Several major glands continued

Thymus Gland-  Regulates the immune system

Adrenal Glands- Produce hormones such as adrenaline, Responsible for the 'flight or fight' response

Pancreas-  Releases the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulates blood sugar levels

Gonads- Ovaries and Testes, Produce sex hormone e.g Testosterone and Oestrogen. These are important in reproduction and the development of sex organs and secondary sexul characteristics

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Endocrine system communication is slower, long las

  • Hormones aren't released directly onto their target cells- they must travel in the blood to get there. This means that chemical communication (by hormones) is slower than electrical communcation(by nerves)
  • They aren't broken down as quickly as neurotransmitters, so the effects of hormones can last for much longer
  • Hormones are trnsported all over the body, so the resposne may be widespread if the target cells are widespread.
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The Fight or Flight

The Hypothalamus prepres you for the 'fight or flight' 

The activation of the fight or flight

  • Hypothalamus triggers activity in the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
  • This stimulates the adrenal medulla within the adrenl glands, which releases adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood stream
  • This causes several changes in the body 
  • Now the body is ready to use energy to deal with the necessary situation 
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fight or flight changes

  • Blood pressure and heart rate increase to get blood quickly to areas of the body where it's needed for activity.
  • Digestion decreases so that blood goes straight to brain an muscles
  • Muscles become more tense so body is physically responsible
  • Perspiration increases so body can cool down
  • increased breathing rate so more oxygen is sent to muscles 
  • pupil size decreases standing making vision clearer
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